Editing Piltdown Man forgery

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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Dawson the ‘Wizard’ produces ‘Piltdown II’
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Dawson the ‘Wizard’ produces ‘Piltdown II’
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | On 9 January 1915,Dawson wrote to Smith Woodward; ‘I believe weare in luck again! I have got a fragment of the left side of a frontal bone with portion of the orbit and root of nose... the general thickness seems to me to correspond to the right parietal of ''Eoanthropus''’.Dawson omitted to mention the location of his find, noting only that it came from a ploughed field (Smith Woodward appears however to have been aware of the general location).  
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | On 9 January 1915,Dawson wrote to Smith Woodward; ‘I believe weare in luck again! I have got a fragment of the left side of a frontal bone with portion of the orbit and root of nose... the general thickness seems to me to correspond to the right parietal of ''Eoanthropus''’.Dawson omitted to mention the location of his find, noting only that it came from a ploughed field (Smith Woodward appears however to have been aware of the general location).  
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 018.jpg|150px|Charles Dawson (left) and Arthur Smith Woodward (middle) sifting gravel at Barkham Manor in the summerof 1913; Venus Hargreaves (right) was employed as labourer From ''Natural History: Journal of the American Museum'', Nov-Dec 1921]]
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 018.jpg|150px|Charles Dawson (left) and Arthur Smith Woodward (middle) sifting gravel at Barkham Manor in the summerof 1913; Venus Hargreaves (right) was employed as labourer © Natural History: Journal of the American Museum, Nov-Dec 1921]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" |  30 July, 1915  
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" |  30 July, 1915  
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Charles Dawson, 1864-1916
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Charles Dawson, 1864-1916
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | On 10 August 1916, Charles Dawson died of septicaemia. He was 52 years of age.
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | On 10 August 1916, Charles Dawson died of septicaemia. He was 52 years of age.
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 020.jpg|150px|Charles Dawson © The Geological Society (GSL/POR/49/17-01]]
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 020.jpg|150px|Charles Dawson, Public domain]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1917
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1917
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Swanscombe
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Swanscombe
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | The status of Piltdown Man was also brought into question with the discoveries in 1935 and 1936 of early human cranial remains in association with stone tools at Swanscombe in north- west Kent. The discoveries were made by Alvan T. Marston, a London dentist, who had for two years past been searching the old ‘100 foot terrace’ deposits of the River Thames for Palaeolithic flint implements and fossil mammals. Arthur Keith professed the Swanscombe fragments to be those of early modern man (''Homo sapiens''), while Elliot Smith judged the new skull to be more primitive than Piltdown. The Swanscombe individual, who was probably a young woman, is now considered to be of Neanderthal affinity (''Homo neanderthalensis'').
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | The status of Piltdown Man was also brought into question with the discoveries in 1935 and 1936 of early human cranial remains in association with stone tools at Swanscombe in north- west Kent. The discoveries were made by Alvan T. Marston, a London dentist, who had for two years past been searching the old ‘100 foot terrace’ deposits of the River Thames for Palaeolithic flint implements and fossil mammals. Arthur Keith professed the Swanscombe fragments to be those of early modern man (''Homo sapiens''), while Elliot Smith judged the new skull to be more primitive than Piltdown. The Swanscombe individual, who was probably a young woman, is now considered to be of Neanderthal affinity (''Homo neanderthalensis'').
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 024.jpg|150px|Telegram from Alvan T. Marston to Henry Dewey of the Geological Survey informing him of the discovery of a skull fragment at Swanscombe, Kent, 1935 — ‘Swanscombe man’. BGS/NERC (P827762)]]
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 024.jpg|150px|Telegram from Alvan T. Marston to Henry Dewey informing him of the discovery of a skull fragment at Swanscombe, Kent, 1935 — ‘Swanscombe man’. BGS/NERC (P827762)]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1936
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1936
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Piltdown further undermined
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Piltdown further undermined
| style="vertical-align:top;" | There was another more serious problem raised by the Swanscombe finds. In 1925 Francis H. Edmunds of the Geological Survey was sent out to map the terrace deposits around Piltdown that had been omitted from earlier editions of the official geological map of the area. Edmunds demonstrated that the Piltdown gravel closely correlates with the Thames ‘50-foot terrace’ and is thus younger than the Swanscombe terrace deposits. It appeared therefore that an ape- like ''Eoanthropus ''had coexisted with modern man! Clearly something was amiss. Alvan Marston became convinced that the ape-like Piltdown jaw could not possibly have belonged with the essentially human Piltdown cranium, but must be a chance association.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | There was another more serious problem raised by the Swanscombe finds. In 1925 Francis H. Edmunds of the Geological Survey was sent out to map the terrace deposits around Piltdown that had been omitted from earlier editions of the official geological map of the area. Edmunds was able to demonstrate that the Piltdown gravel closely correlated with the Thames ‘50-foot terrace’ and is thus younger than the Swanscombe terrace deposits. It appeared therefore that an ape- like ''Eoanthropus ''had coexisted with modern man! Clearly something was amiss. Alvan Marston became convinced that the ape-like Piltdown jaw could not possibly have belonged with the essentially human Piltdown cranium, but must be a chance association.
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 025.png|150px|Piltdown geological map. © BGS/NERC Edmunds' 1955 ]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 025.png|150px|Piltdown geological map. © BGS/NERC Edmunds' 1955 ]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1938
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1938
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | A memorial to Piltdown
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | A memorial to Piltdown
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Early in the 1920s a wooden memorial was erected at Barkham Manor on the site where the first ''Eoanthropus dawsoni ''had been found, and in 1938 Smith Woodward arranged for this to be replaced by a more permanent sandstone monolith. It was unveiled by Arthur Keith on 23 July 1938 and carries the following inscription: ‘Here in the old river gravel, Mr Charles Dawson, FSA, found the fossil skull of Piltdown Man 1912–1913. The discovery was described by Mr Charles Dawson and Sir Arthur Smith Woodward in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 1913–15.’
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Early in the 1920s a wooden memorial was erected on the site where the first ''Eoanthropus dawsoni ''had been found, and in 1938 Smith Woodward arranged for this to be replaced by a more permanent sandstone monolith. It was unveiled by Arthur Keith on 23 July 1938 and carries the following inscription: ‘Here in the old river gravel, Mr Charles Dawson, FSA, found the fossil skull of Piltdown Man 1912–1913. The discovery was described by Mr Charles Dawson and Sir Arthur Smith Woodward in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 1913–15.’
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 026.jpg|150px|Piltdown monument © David Bate]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 026.jpg|150px|Piltdown monument © David Bate]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1949
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1949
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Fluorine testing
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Fluorine testing
| style="vertical-align:top;" | In 1949 Kenneth P. Oakley of the Natural History Museum used a fluorine test to determine whether the Piltdown jaw and cranium were contemporaneous. Fossil bones and teeth accumulate fluorine over the course of time by absorption from circulating groundwater. By analysing the amount of fluorine contained in a sample of material it is possible to determine the relative ages of fossils. The test had already been used successfully on the Swanscombe finds. The Piltdown jaw and skull fragments yielded similar fluorine values and thus appeared to be contemporaneous. However, these values were much lower than those obtained from the Swanscombe individual, implying that Piltdown Man was of more recent geological age than originally thought.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | In 1949 Kenneth P. Oakley of the Natural History Museum used a fluorine test to determine whether the Piltdown jaw and cranium were contemporaneous. Fossil bones and teeth accumulate fluorine over the course of time by absorption from circulating groundwater. By analysing the amount of fluorine contained in a sample of material it is possible to determine the relative ages of fossils. The test had already been used successfully on the Swanscombe finds. The Piltdown jaw and skull fragments yielded similar values of fluorine values and thus appeared to be contemporaneous. However, these values were much lower than those obtained from the Swanscombe individual, implying that Piltdown Man was of more recent geological age than originally thought.
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 027.jpg|150px|Dr Kenneth Oakley (left) and L. E. Parsons discussing sampling of the Piltdown jaw for fluorine analysis in 1949.© Natural History Museum(Image: 039914)]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 027.jpg|150px|Dr Kenneth Oakley (left) and L. E. Parsons discussing sampling of the Piltdown jaw for fluorine analysis in 1949.© Natural History Museum(Image: 039914)]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1953
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1953
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Doubts about authenticity
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Doubts about authenticity
| style="vertical-align:top;" | In 1953 Joseph S. Weiner, Professor of Physical Anthropology at Oxford University, was able to examine the original Piltdown remains. He had developed doubts about their authenticity and the more he looked at them the more the doubts grew. Weiner discovered that the Natural History Museum had no record of the exact spot where the remains of Piltdown II had been found. Yet this second site had been used to support the authenticity of the first Piltdown finds and to silence the critics. Piltdown II's lack of provenance was thus of serious concern.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | In 1953 Joseph S. Weiner, Professor of Physical Anthropology at Oxford University, was able to examine the original Piltdown remains. He had developed doubts about their authenticity and the more he looked at them the more the doubts grew. Weiner discovered that the Natural History Museum had no record of the exact spot where the remains of Piltdown II had been found. These location details had been used to support the authenticity of the original Piltdown finds; this lack of provenance was of great importance.
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 029.jpg|150px|Joseph S. Weiner, Professor of Physical Anthropology at Oxford University.© Natural History Museum (Image: 040284)]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 029.jpg|150px|Joseph S. Weiner, Professor of Physical Anthropology at Oxford University.© Natural History Museum (Image: 040284)]]
 
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