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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1953
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1953
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Charles Dawson (1864-1916)
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Charles Dawson (1864-1916)
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Dawson was a solicitor at Uckfield in Sussex, and a noted antiquarian and amateur geologist, having been elected a Fellow of the Geological Society of London in 1885 and of the Society of Antiquaries in 1895. He made many donations of Wealden fossils to the Natural History Museum. Dawson was ambitious for recognition and fame and fully expected the Piltdown discoveries to secure him fellowship of the Royal Society, an aspiration that was ultimately denied him. When the fraud was exposed in 1953, Dawson became an obvious suspect. He had been the motivating force behind the excavations and was always present when finds were made. Following his death in 1916 there were no further discoveries. Since 1953 many of Dawson’s antiquarian ‘discoveries’ have been shown to be either fraudulent or suspect.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Dawson was a solicitor at Uckfield in Sussex, and a noted antiquarian and amateur geologist, being made a Fellow of the Geological Society of London in 1885 and of the Society of Antiquaries in 1895. He made many donations of Wealden fossils to the Natural History Museum. Dawson was ambitious for recognition and fame and fully expected the Piltdown discoveries to secure him fellowship of the Royal Society, an aspiration that was ultimately denied him. When the fraud was exposed in 1953, Dawson became an obvious suspect. He had been the motivating force behind the excavations and was always present when finds were made. After he died from septicaemia in 1916 there were no further discoveries. Since 1953 many of Dawson’s antiquarian ‘discoveries’ have been shown to be either fraudulent or suspect.
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 038.jpg|150px|Charles Dawson © The Geological Society (GSL/POR/49/17-01)]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 038.jpg|150px|Charles Dawson © The Geological Society (GSL/POR/49/17-01)]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1954
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1954
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955)
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955)
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Teilhard de Chardin was a French philosopher and Jesuit priest who trained as a palaeontologist. He was studying at Hastings when he first met Dawson in 1909. Dawson invited him to the excavation at Piltdown in 1912, and in 1913 Teilhard discovered the canine tooth. He was still alive when the fraud was uncovered, but when questioned was reluctant to talk about it, which in 1954 aroused suspicion in the minds of the investigators. Those who have implicated Teilhard include Louis Leakey and Stephen Jay Gould, both of whom believed it possible that he had worked in collusion with Dawson. Leakey had no clear evidence to back up his suspicion, while Gould’s accusation was based on incomplete information. More recently the case against Teilhard has been revived by Francis Thackeray, who believes that Teilhard perpetrated a prank that went too far.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Teilhard de Chardin was a French philosopher and Jesuit priest who trained as a palaeontologist. He was studying at Hastings when he first met Dawson in 1909. Dawson invited him to the excavation at Piltdown in 1912, and in 1913 Teilhard discovered the canine tooth. He was still alive when the hoax was uncovered, but when questioned was reluctant to talk about it, which in 1954 aroused suspicion in the minds of the investigators. Those who have implicated Teilhard include Louis Leakey and Stephen Jay Gould, both of whom believed it possible that he had worked in collusion with Dawson. Leakey had no clear evidence to back up his suspicion, while Gould’s accusation was based on incomplete information. More recently the case against Teilhard has been revived by Francis Thackeray, who believes that Teilhard perpetrated a prank that went too far.
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 039.jpg|150px|Teilhard de Chardin at lunch with colleagues at the Natural History Museum in 1935. © Natural History Museum (Image: 046939)]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 039.jpg|150px|Teilhard de Chardin at lunch with colleagues at the Natural History Museum in 1935. © Natural History Museum (Image: 046939)]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1972
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1972
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | William Ruskin Butterfield (1872–1935)
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | William Ruskin Butterfield (1872–1935)
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Butterfield was curator and librarian of Hastings Museum during the period of the Piltdown discoveries. In 1972 Guy van Esbroeck, in his book ''Pleine lumière sur l’imposture de Piltdown'', accused Butterworth of being the Piltdown forger in collusion with Venus Hargreaves, the labourer employed at Barkham Manor. His argument is that Butterworth was greatly put out on learning through a chance remark from Teilhard de Chardin, in 1909, that Dawson had quietly appropriated a series of bones of the dinosaur ''Iguanodon'' from a Hastings quarry and presented them to the Natural History Museum at South Kensington rather than to Hastings Museum. It is claimed that Butterfield carried out the ‘hoax’ in revenge. This theory seems to ignore the fact that Dawson had already made his first find at Piltdown probably in the previous year, 1908.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Butterfield was curator and librarian of Hastings Museum during the period of the Piltdown discoveries. In 1972 Guy van Esbroeck, in his book Pleine lumière sur l’imposture de Piltdown, accused Butterworth of being the Piltdown forger in collusion with Venus Hargreaves, the labourer employed at Barkham Manor. His argument is that Butterworth was greatly put out on learning through a chance remark from Teilhard de Chardin, in 1909, that Dawson had quietly appropriated a series of bones of the dinosaur Iguanodon from a Hastings quarry and presented them to the Natural History Museum at South Kensington. It is claimed that he carried out the ‘hoax’ in revenge. This theory seems to ignore the fact that Dawson had already made his first find at Piltdown probably in the previous year.
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1972
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1972
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Venus Hargreaves (dates unknown)
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Venus Hargreaves (dates unknown)
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Hargreaves was the labourer who did most of the digging at Piltdown. Apart from van Esbroeck’s assertion that Hargreaves assisted Butterfield by planting the fraudulent Piltdown assemblage (previous entry), Francis Vere had earlier intimated in his book ''The Piltdown Fantasy'' (1955) that the forger required an accomplice who worked at the site, by which he presumably meant Hargreaves.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Hargreaves was the labourer who did most of the digging at Piltdown. Apart from van Esbroeck’s assertion that Hargreaves assisted Butterfield by planting the fraudulent Piltdown assemblage (previous slide), Francis Vere had earlier intimated in his book The Piltdown Fantasy (1955) that the forger required an accomplice who worked at the site, by which he presumably meant Hargreaves.
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 040.jpg|150px|Charles Dawson (left) and Arthur Smith Woodward (middle) sifting gravel at Barkham Manor in the summer of 1913; Venus Hargreaves (right) was employed as labourer From ''Natural History: Journal of the American Museum'', Nov-Dec 1921]]
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 040.jpg|150px|Charles Dawson (left) and Arthur Smith Woodward (middle) sifting gravel at Barkham Manor in the summer of 1913; Venus Hargreaves (right) was employed as labourer © Natural History: Journal of the American Museum, Nov-Dec 1921]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1972
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1972
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Grafton Elliot Smith (1871-1937)
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Grafton Elliot Smith (1871-1937)
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Elliot Smith, born at Grafton in Australia, was Professor of Anatomy at University of Manchester, 1909–19, and University College London, 1919–37, and had a special interest in the anatomy of the human brain. In ''The Piltdown Men'' (1972) Ronald Millar accused Smith of perpetrating the forgery in order to provide support for his views on human evolution. The case made against him is convoluted and entirely circumstantial. Millar regards it as suspicious that Smith allowed Woodward to reconstruct the Piltdown skull incorrectly, as Smith was an expert on prehistoric human skulls. One is prompted to ask why, if implicated in the fraud, did Smith assist Woodward in his continuing attempts to look for further evidence at Piltdown long after Dawson’s death? Kenneth Oakley (in a private communication to Charles Blinderman) regarded Millar’s accusation as ‘absurd’, a view shared by many others.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Elliot Smith, born at Grafton in Australia, was Professor of Anatomy at University of Manchester, 1909–19, and University College London, 1919–37, and had a special interest in the anatomy of the human brain. In The Piltdown Men (1972) Ronald Millar accused Smith of perpetrating the forgery in order to provide support for his views on human evolution. The case made against him is convoluted and entirely circumstantial. Millar regards it as suspicious that Smith allowed Woodward to reconstruct the Piltdown skull incorrectly, as Smith was an expert on prehistoric human skulls. One is prompted to ask why, if implicated in the fraud, did Smith assist Woodward in his continuing attempts to look for further evidence at Piltdown long after Dawson’s death? Kenneth Oakley (in a private communication to Charles Blinderman) regarded Millar’s accusation as ‘absurd’, a view shared by many others.
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1978
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1978
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | William Johnson Sollas (1849-1936)
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | William Johnson Sollas (1849-1936)
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Sollas was Professor of Geology at Oxford. In 1978 he was accused of complicity in the Piltdown forgery by his former assistant at the university, Prof. J. A. Douglas (died 1978). Douglas was convinced that Sollas had directed the 'hoax' through Dawson in order to revenge himself on Smith Woodward, who he regarded as a bitter enemy. Douglas’s evidence consisted of nothing more than his memory of the arrival of a package for Sollas containing potassium ‘bichromate’, and of Sollas borrowing apes’ teeth from the university’s Department of Human Anatomy. According to Douglas the whole thing had ‘started as a joke and then got out of hand’. It has been suggested that Douglas may have harboured a grudge against Sollas, who un-obligingly retained his professorship to the age of 87 before yielding the Chair to Douglas.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Sollas was Professor of Geology at Oxford. In 1978 he was accused of complicity in the Piltdown forgery by his former assistant at the university, Prof. J. A. Douglas (died 1978). Douglas was convinced that Sollas had directed the hoax through Dawson in order to revenge himself on Smith Woodward, who he regarded as a bitter enemy. Douglas’s evidence consisted of nothing more than his memory of the arrival of a package for Sollas containing potassium ‘bichromate’, and of Sollas borrowing apes’ teeth from the university’s Department of Human Anatomy. According to Douglas the whole thing had ‘started as a joke and then got out of hand’. It has been suggested that Douglas may have harboured a grudge against Sollas, who un-obligingly retained his professorship to the age of 87 before yielding the Chair to Douglas.
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 041.jpg|150px|Portrait of William Johnson Sollas. Black and white photograph by Hills & Saunders, 1915. ©Geological Society GSL/POR/57/34]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 041.jpg|150px|Portrait of William Johnson Sollas. Black and white photograph by Hills & Saunders, 1915. ©Geological Society GSL/POR/57/34]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1978
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1978
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Martin Hinton (1883-1961)
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Martin Hinton (1883-1961)
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Hinton worked as a volunteer in the Natural History Museum from 1910-15. From 1921 to 1936 he worked in the Zoology Department retiring in 1945. In 1953, Hinton wrote to ''The Times'' saying that he and others at the Museum had always believed the jaw to be that of a chimpanzee. In the following year he told the BBC that the forgery had been an inside job but would not name the forger, who was still alive. In 1978 a trunk bearing Hinton's initials was found at the Museum. Inside were bones and teeth, stained and carved in the same way as the Piltdown fossils and artefacts. It has been argued that Hinton could have sourced the orangutan jaw from the collections at the Museum, in which case it seems odd that he always professed the jaw to be that of a chimpanzee!  
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Hinton worked as a volunteer in the Natural History Museum from 1910-15. From 1921 to 1936 he worked in the Zoology Department retiring in 1945. In 1953, Hinton wrote to The Times saying that he and others at the Museum had always believed the jaw to be that of a chimpanzee. In the following year he told the BBC that the forgery had been an inside job but would not name the forger, who was still alive. In 1978 a trunk bearing Hinton's initials was found at the Museum. Inside were bones and teeth, stained and carved in the same way as the Piltdown fossils and artefacts. It has been argued that Hinton could have sourced the orangutan jaw from the collections at the Museum, in which case it seems odd that he always professed the jaw to be that of a chimpanzee!  
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 042.jpg|150px|Martin Alister Campbell Hinton. © Natural History Museum (Image: 011984)]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 042.jpg|150px|Martin Alister Campbell Hinton. © Natural History Museum (Image: 011984)]]
 
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