Editing Quaternary features of Scugdale, northwest Cleveland Hills - an excursion

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== Geological background ==
 
== Geological background ==
  
Most of the York and Teesside plains are covered by '''drift''' deposits of Devensian age (Dimlington '''Stadial''' — 26 000 to 13 000 BP). The glacial deposits are the product of an ice-sheet which spread southwards about 18 000 years ago and subsequently began to melt about 13 000 years ago. Older (pre-Devensian) deposits may be present in buried valleys and more recent Flandrian sediments locally overlie the Devensian deposits and modify the glacial topography.
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Most of the York and Teesside plains are covered by drift deposits of Devensian age (Dimlington Stadial — 26 000 to 13 000 BP). The glacial deposits are the product of an ice-sheet which spread southwards about 18 000 years ago and subsequently began to melt about 13 000 years ago. Older (pre-Devensian) deposits may be present in buried valleys and more recent Flandrian sediments locally overlie the Devensian deposits and modify the glacial topography.
  
The powerful early ice-sheets streamed out eastwards and southeastwards from the Lake District and southwest Scotland, being joined en route by less powerful ice from local Pennine glaciers occupying Wensleydale and Swaledale. Much of the ice came through the Stainmore Gap, with part continuing eastwards down the Tees, and another branch swinging south through the Vale of Mowbray into the York Plain. The total thickness of ice in the central Tees lowlands was probably about 800 m. As the ice-sheet melted and retreated from the Cleveland Hills, both downhill and northwards, it left behind a complex sequence of glacial deposits including '''till''' (boulder clay), sand and gravel, laminated clay, lacustrine clay, silt, sand and '''loess'''. Such lithologies also form distinctive morphologies indicative of their origin, '''drumlins, eskers,''' sites of glacial lakes and '''meltwater channels'''. There are no well-preserved '''moraines''' in this area comparable with the York and Eskrick features further south. However the margins of the hills around Scugdale abound with meltwater channels. This excursion highlights these features in the Osmotherley–Swainby area ([[:File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_12_01.jpg|Figure 12.1]]).
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The powerful early ice-sheets streamed out eastwards and southeastwards from the Lake District and southwest Scotland, being joined en route by less powerful ice from local Pennine glaciers occupying Wensleydale and Swaledale. Much of the ice came through the Stainmore Gap, with part continuing eastwards down the Tees, and another branch swinging south through the Vale of Mowbray into the York Plain. The total thickness of ice in the central Tees lowlands was probably about 800 m. As the ice-sheet melted and retreated from the Cleveland Hills, both downhill and northwards, it left behind a complex sequence of glacial deposits including till (boulder clay), sand and gravel, laminated clay, lacustrine clay, silt, sand and loess. Such lithologies also form distinctive morphologies indicative of their origin, drumlins, eskers, sites of glacial lakes and meltwater channels. There are no well-preserved moraines in this area comparable with the York and Eskrick features further south. However the margins of the hills around Scugdale abound with meltwater channels. This excursion highlights these features in the Osmotherley–Swainby area ([[:File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_12_01.jpg|Figure 12.1]]).
  
 
== Excursion details ==
 
== Excursion details ==

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