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==Siting Boreholes==
 
==Siting Boreholes==
  
Siting boreholes and wells successfully requires a good understanding of where groundwater occurs and how it behaves in the local environment. Developing this understanding starts with '''reconnaissance''', and is refined by '''hydrogeological fieldwork''' and '''geophysical surveying'''. Only a very brief introduction is given here. More information can be found in the book [https://www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/book/10.3362/9781780441290 Developing Groundwater: A guide for rural water supply] by MacDonald et al. (2005) or the report [http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/501046/ Simple methods for assessing groundwater resources in low permeability areas of Africa] by MacDonald et al. (2001), both of which are available online.
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Siting boreholes and wells successfully requires a good understanding of where groundwater occurs and how it behaves in the local environment. Developing this understanding starts with '''reconnaissance''', and is refined by '''hydrogeological fieldwork''' and '''geophysical surveying'''. Only a very brief introduction is given here. More information can be found in the book Developing [https://www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/book/10.3362/9781780441290 Groundwater: A guide for rural water supply] by MacDonald et al. (2005) or the report [http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/501046/ Simple methods for assessing groundwater resources in low permeability areas of Africa] by MacDonald et al. (2001), both of which are available online.
  
 
===Reconnaissance===
 
===Reconnaissance===
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|This involves making field observations of the local geology, hydrogeology and existing water sources, and gathering information from sources such as discussions with the local community. Local dry and wet season water sources should be visited, and discussions held with the community to find out more details: e.g. how much they yield; do yields fall or dry up in the dry season; are there water quality problems? Rock exposures(e.g. in river cuttings or cliffs) can give more information on local geology, as can chippings/cuttings from any local hand-dug wells or previously drilled boreholes (failed or working). It is also important to observe any local sources of pollution, such as pit latrines, burial grounds, cattle pens or market areas.
 
|This involves making field observations of the local geology, hydrogeology and existing water sources, and gathering information from sources such as discussions with the local community. Local dry and wet season water sources should be visited, and discussions held with the community to find out more details: e.g. how much they yield; do yields fall or dry up in the dry season; are there water quality problems? Rock exposures(e.g. in river cuttings or cliffs) can give more information on local geology, as can chippings/cuttings from any local hand-dug wells or previously drilled boreholes (failed or working). It is also important to observe any local sources of pollution, such as pit latrines, burial grounds, cattle pens or market areas.
  
An introduction to hydrogeological fieldwork techniques that are useful for borehole siting can be found in the chapter '''Finding Groundwater''' in [https://www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/book/10.3362/9781780441290 MacDonald et al. (2005)], which can be freely downloaded online.
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An introduction to hydrogeological fieldwork techniques that are useful for borehole siting can be found in the chapter [https://www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/abs/10.3362/9781780441290.005 '''Finding Groundwater'''] in [https://www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/book/10.3362/9781780441290 MacDonald et al. (2005)], which can be freely downloaded online.
  
 
[[File:P1040903.JPG|  left|thumb| 400px| Geologists examining a surface outcrop of a local aquifer. Photo credit: British Geological Survey.]]
 
[[File:P1040903.JPG|  left|thumb| 400px| Geologists examining a surface outcrop of a local aquifer. Photo credit: British Geological Survey.]]
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It is important that geophysical techniques are carried out and interpreted carefully by well-trained personnel. If surveying is done wrongly or survey results interpreted wrongly, at best the information given will be of no help, and at worse it can lead to expensive mistakes in borehole siting.
 
It is important that geophysical techniques are carried out and interpreted carefully by well-trained personnel. If surveying is done wrongly or survey results interpreted wrongly, at best the information given will be of no help, and at worse it can lead to expensive mistakes in borehole siting.
  
A detailed introduction to geophysical techniques that are useful for borehole siting can be found in the chapter '''Finding Groundwater''' in [https://www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/book/10.3362/9781780441290 MacDonald et al. (2005)], which can be downloaded online.
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A detailed introduction to geophysical techniques that are useful for borehole siting can be found in the chapter [https://www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/abs/10.3362/9781780441290.005 '''Finding Groundwater'''] in [https://www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/book/10.3362/9781780441290 MacDonald et al. (2005)], which can be downloaded online.
  
  

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