T W Reader geological photographs. 1914, 1916 - index, GA 'Carreck Archive'

From Earthwise
Revision as of 16:50, 17 July 2020 by Scotfot (talk | contribs)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

T W Reader geological photographs. 1914, 1916 - index, GA 'Carreck Archive'

Link to photograph album

Page 5 P804641 Section of the entrance lock which when completed will be 800 feet long, 100 feet wide and 45 feet deep. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 5 P804642 Section of the entrance lock which when completed will be 800 feet long, 100 feet wide and 45 feet deep. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914. Added note: Ballast with chalk below; Alluvial clay; Peat; Made ground. [Bottom to top.].
Page 5 P804643 The gantry used in transporting material for the foundations and walls of the lock. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 5 P804644 Excavation for the footings of the lock wall which are laid in the Chalk. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914. Added note: Chalk; Thanet Sand in places; Thames Ballast. [Bottom to top.].
Page 7 P804645 Alluvial clay and peat resting on ballast in the south trench which has been excavated for a length of 4,300 feet. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914. On the left is the ?Lubecker? or land dredger, two of which are employed in the excavation. On the ballast forming the base are the tree trunks.
Page 7 P804646 Alluvial clay and peat resting on ballast in the south trench which has been excavated for a length of 4,300 feet. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914. On the left is the ?Lubecker? or land dredger, two of which are employed in the excavation. On the ballast forming the base are the tree trunks.
Page 7 P804647 Snags or yew trunks brought down by the old river. The wood is still so firm that the teeth of the land dredger will not cut through them so they are left to dry. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 7 P804648 Snags or yew trunks brought down by the old river. The wood is still so firm that the teeth of the land dredger will not cut through them so they are left to dry. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 9 P804649 Alluvial clay showing section of tree trunk or waterlogged wood which is as soft as cheese in this position. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 9 P804650 Peat overlying clay with a yew trunk standing up to dry with the wood almost fresh. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 9 P804651 Roots of plants which formed the peat penetrating the clay. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 9 P804652 Roots of plants which formed the peat penetrating the clay. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 11 P804653 Clay filling an old creek, formerly Ham Creek. This was navigable up to the year 1656. As the clay was too stiff for the land dredger it had to be pinched out by cranes. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 11 P804654 Clay filling an old creek, formerly Ham Creek. This was navigable up to the year 1656. As the clay was too stiff for the land dredger it had to be pinched out by cranes. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 11 P804655 Clay filling a washout in the peat where a cross stream has cut away the peat forming a dumb fault, as called by coal miners. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 11 P804656 Sun cracks in alluvial clay exposed by mechanical digger. Excursion to Royal Albert Docks, March 21st 1914.
Page 13 P804657 Section of Lea Valley Gravels in the North London Ballast Company's pit. In the lower part is found the Arctic Bed containing the same arctic flora and mollusca as that examined at Ponders End in 1911. Excursion to Edmonton, March 28th 1914.
Page 13 P804658 Section of Lea Valley Gravels in the North London Ballast Company's pit. In the lower part is found the Arctic Bed containing the same arctic flora and mollusca as that examined at Ponders End in 1911. Excursion to Edmonton, March 28th 1914.
Page 13 P804659 Section in the Low Level Terrace of Lea Valley Gravel. Bones of the banded lemming, elephant, deer, horse, rhinoceros etc. are frequently found. Excursion to Edmonton, March 28th 1914.
Page 13 P804660 Cross section of old water course in Lea Valley gravel. Excursion to Edmonton, March 28th 1914.
Page 15 P804661 The Southgate Council Gravel Pit in Hedge Lane. Excursion to Southgate, March 28th 1914. The Southgate Council Gravel Pit in Hedge Lane is interesting as cutting across the boundary between the Middle Terrace and Lower Terrace Gravels, although there is no surface feature to indicate it. The Middle Terrace deposits (gravel and brickearth) are about 15 to 20 ft. in thickness. In the above sections the underlying floor of London Clay plunges down into a deep channel now filled with drift to a thickness of more than 56 feet. Added note: Low Terrace Gravels; Middle Terrace. [Bottom to top.].
Page 15 P804662 The Southgate Council Gravel Pit in Hedge Lane is interesting as cutting across the boundary between the Middle Terrace and Lower Terrace Gravels, although there is no surface feature to indicate it. Excursion to Southgate, March 28th 1914. The Middle Terrace deposits (gravel and brickearth) are about 15 to 20 ft. in thickness. In the above sections the underlying floor of London Clay plunges down into a deep channel now filled with drift to a thickness of more than 56 feet. Added note: Low Terrace Gravels; Middle Terrace. [Bottom to top.].
Page 15 P804663 Section of Lower Terrace Gravels. Plant beds with seeds etc. are intercalated in this drift. Excursion to Southgate, March 28th 1914.
Page 17 P804664 Howe Hill Gravel Pit. These finely bedded gravels resting on a Chalk floor with a clean junction are equivalent to the lower beds of the Dartford Heath Gravels. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. They occur between Dartford Heath and Swanscombe and agree generally in height at base levels as well as in constituents and arrangment. [Two photographs combined to give continuous landscape view.].
Page 17 P804665 Howe Hill Gravel Pit. These finely bedded gravels resting on a Chalk floor with a clean junction are equivalent to the lower beds of the Dartford Heath Gravels. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. They occur between Dartford Heath and Swanscombe and agree generally in height at base levels as well as in constituents and arrangment. [Two photographs combined to give continuous landscape view.].
Page 17 P804666 Howe Heath Gravel Pit. Finely bedded Dartford Heath Gravels. These contain unworn Chalk flints at the base and a great deal of Tertiary material scattered throughout. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 17 P804667 Howe Heath Gravel Pit. False or current bedding in gravel. The harder bands which accentuate the bedding planes are stained by iron and manganese. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 19 P804668 Scott and Brantons Tollgate Pit. Sections in the Darent Drift containing a quantity of very fresh Ragstone and Chert. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 19 P804669 Scott and Brantons Tollgate Pit. Sections in the Darent Drift containing a quantity of very fresh Ragstone and Chert. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 19 P804670 Martins Pit, opposite Acacia Road, Horns Cross. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. This pit is in a flat terrace of Dartford Heath Gravel capping the chalk escarpment, showing false bedded sands and gravels with flints very much shattered. Near the base is a heavy layer of densely packed sand.
Page 19 P804671 Martins Pit, opposite Acacia Road, Horns Cross. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. This pit is in a flat terrace of Dartford Heath Gravel capping the chalk escarpment, showing false bedded sands and gravels with flints very much shattered. Near the base is a heavy layer of densely packed sand.
Page 21 P804672 Castle Cross Gravel Pit. Finely bedded Dartford Heath Gravels resting directly on the Chalk. Very large unworn flints and sarsens are found at the base. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 21 P804673 Castle Cross Gravel Pit. Finely bedded Dartford Heath Gravels resting directly on the Chalk. Very large unworn flints and sarsens are found at the base. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 21 P804674 Stone Court Gravel Pit, west side of Cotton Lane. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. Added note: Thanet Sand in hollows on Chalk; Gravel. [Bottom to top.].
Page 21 P804675 Stone Court Gravel Pit, west side of Cotton Lane. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. Added note: Thanet Sand in hollows on Chalk; Gravel. [Bottom to top.].
Page 23 P804676 Stone Court Gravel Pit, west side of Cotton Lane. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. Added note: Chalk; Bulkhead bed 9 inches; Thanet Sand 6 feet; Dartford Heath Gravel 4 to 6 feet. [Bottom to top.].
Page 23 P804677 Stone Court Gravel Pit, west side of Cotton Lane. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. Added note: Chalk; Bulkhead bed 9 inches; Thanet Sand 6 feet; Dartford Heath Gravel 4 to 6 feet. [Bottom to top.].
Page 23 P804678 Redeposited flint layer. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 23 P804679 A ?Fossil Mare's Nest?. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. This was described by the archaeologist present as the shaft of a ?denehole? until a workman pricked the bubble by saying it was worn by tipping the gravel down into rucks[?] which ran under from the adjoining pit.
Page 25 P804680 Our Special. This line under construction is the continuation from Hertford to Knebworth. Excursion to Hertford and Stevenage, May 2nd 1914. For about six miles the line traverses the western slope of the Stevenage Valley drained by the River Beane which joins the Lea near Hertford. The general character of the country is undulating.
Page 25 P804681 The Switchback. This line under construction is the continuation from Hertford to Knebworth. Excursion to Hertford and Stevenage, May 2nd 1914. For about six miles the line traverses the western slope of the Stevenage Valley drained by the River Beane which joins the Lea near Hertford. The general character of the country is undulating.
Page 25 P804682 A valley being crossed. A cutting in Boulder Clay in the eastern slope of the Stevenage Valley. Excursion to Hertford and Stevenage, May 2nd 1914.
Page 25 P804683 Entrance to a tunnel 300 yards long through the Chalk with Gravels and Boulder Clay overlying it. Members just coming through. Excursion to Hertford and Stevenage, May 2nd 1914.
Page 27 P804684 False bedding in glacial sands at Watton. Excursion to Hertford and Stevenage, May 2nd 1914.
Page 27 P804685 False bedding in glacial sands at Watton. Excursion to Hertford and Stevenage, May 2nd 1914.
Page 27 P804686 Watton cutting in boulder clay and gravel. Excursion to Hertford and Stevenage, May 2nd 1914.
Page 27 P804687 Watton cutting in boulder clay and gravel. Excursion to Hertford and Stevenage, May 2nd 1914.
Page 29 P804688 Section of Westleton Shingle at 406 ft. OD, being a gravel of flint pebbles, quartz pebbles, blocks of quartz, subangular flints, sand etc. Excursion to Ayot, May 9th 1914. Added note: Westleton Shingle; Boulder Clay. [Bottom to top.].
Page 29 P804689 Basement beds of the London Clay, bent into sharp curves. Excursion to Ayot, May 9th 1914.
Page 29 P804690 Reading Sands, consisting of current bedded white and buff sands with strings of flint pebbles, much disturbed and bending down to fill hollow in the Chalk. Excursion to Ayot, May 9th 1914.
Page 29 P804691 Reading Sands, consisting of current bedded white and buff sands with strings of flint pebbles, much disturbed and bending down to fill hollow in the Chalk. Excursion to Ayot, May 9th 1914.
Page 31 P804692 A mass of pebbles driven into the Boulder Clay. Excursion to Ayot, May 9th 1914.
Page 31 P804693 Reading Beds. Excursion to Ayot, May 9th 1914.
Page 31 P804694 Current bedded white and buff sands of the Reading Series. Excursion to Ayot, May 9th 1914.
Page 31 P804695 A mass of green clay projecting as a reef through the sand which dips off it and contains fragments of the clay as pebbles. Excursion to Ayot, May 9th 1914.
Page 33 P804696 Our rendezvous. [The ?Five Miles from Anywhere: No Hurry? inn.]. Excursion to Upware, May 10th 1914.
Page 33 P804697 Barrow near Upware. Excursion to Upware, May 10th 1914.
Page 33 P804698 Trench round the barrow. Excursion to Upware, May 10th 1914.
Page 35 P804699 Sections of Coral Rag, resting on Coralline Oolite, Upware. Excursion to Upware, May 10th 1914. The Corallian of Upware is of interest as another phase of a very variable series which occurs between the Oxford and Kim[m]eridge Clays. It is referred to as the Tetworth Clay by Prof. Sedgwick but afterwards as the Ampthill Clay from a locality in which it was better seen. It does not appear to have any fossils peculiar to it but those of the Upper and Lower Series, that is of the Kim[m]eridge and Oxford Clays overlap and are commingled in it. The Tetworth Clay probably represents an age during which varying conditions favourable to the formation of limestones recurred here and there in the district, and at Upware these were characterised by the growth on an immense number and variety of corals (Hughes).
Page 35 P804700 Sections of Coral Rag, resting on Coralline Oolite, Upware. Excursion to Upware, May 10th 1914. The Corallian of Upware is of interest as another phase of a very variable series which occurs between the Oxford and Kim[m]eridge Clays. It is referred to as the Tetworth Clay by Prof. Sedgwick but afterwards as the Ampthill Clay from a locality in which it was better seen. It does not appear to have any fossils peculiar to it but those of the Upper and Lower Series, that is of the Kim[m]eridge and Oxford Clays overlap and are commingled in it. The Tetworth Clay probably represents an age during which varying conditions favourable to the formation of limestones recurred here and there in the district, and at Upware these were characterised by the growth on an immense number and variety of corals (Hughes).
Page 35 P804701 Sections of Coral Rag, resting on Coralline Oolite, Upware. Excursion to Upware, May 10th 1914. The Corallian of Upware is of interest as another phase of a very variable series which occurs between the Oxford and Kim[m]eridge Clays. It is referred to as the Tetworth Clay by Prof. Sedgwick but afterwards as the Ampthill Clay from a locality in which it was better seen. It does not appear to have any fossils peculiar to it but those of the Upper and Lower Series, that is of the Kim[m]eridge and Oxford Clays overlap and are commingled in it. The Tetworth Clay probably represents an age during which varying conditions favourable to the formation of limestones recurred here and there in the district, and at Upware these were characterised by the growth on an immense number and variety of corals (Hughes).
Page 35 P804702 Sections of Coral Rag, resting on Coralline Oolite, Upware. Excursion to Upware, May 10th 1914. The Corallian of Upware is of interest as another phase of a very variable series which occurs between the Oxford and Kim[m]eridge Clays. It is referred to as the Tetworth Clay by Prof. Sedgwick but afterwards as the Ampthill Clay from a locality in which it was better seen. It does not appear to have any fossils peculiar to it but those of the Upper and Lower Series, that is of the Kim[m]eridge and Oxford Clays overlap and are commingled in it. The Tetworth Clay probably represents an age during which varying conditions favourable to the formation of limestones recurred here and there in the district, and at Upware these were characterised by the growth on an immense number and variety of corals (Hughes).
Page 37 P804703 Coombs Chalk Pit at West Horsley, Surrey. A section in the upper part of the zone of Micraster cor anguinum [corangium]. Excursion to Horsley, May 23rd 1914. There are two sets of strong joints running roughly NW to SE and NE to SW which causes the faces to be smooth and almost vertical. The Chalk is white and hard with well marked bedding planes and nodular flint bands at varying intervals. Not far from the top is a thick yellow bed. Added note: Walls 50 ft. high.
Page 37 P804704 Coombs Chalk Pit at West Horsley, Surrey. A section in the upper part of the zone of Micraster cor anguinum [corangium]. Excursion to Horsley, May 23rd 1914. There are two sets of strong joints running roughly NW to SE and NE to SW which causes the faces to be smooth and almost vertical. The Chalk is white and hard with well marked bedding planes and nodular flint bands at varying intervals. Not far from the top is a thick yellow bed. Added note: Walls 50 ft. high.
Page 39 P804705 At Newlands Corner. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914. [Motor bus: Commercial Car Hirers R-17.].
Page 39 P804706 Oxshott Heath. Pit in typical Bagshot Sand irregularly bedded with ferruginous concretions and thin seams of pipe clay. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914.
Page 39 P804707 Gravel and clay with flints at Newlands Corner. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914.
Page 39 P804708 Gravel and clay with flints at Newlands Corner. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914.
Page 41 P804709 Sandstone Quarries, Pitch Hill. The calcareous sandstone is quarried in the Hythe Beds of the Lower Greensand. Very little chert is found in these quarries but the horizon is that of the Leith Hill Chert Beds. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914.
Page 41 P804710 Sandstone Quarries, Pitch Hill. The calcareous sandstone is quarried in the Hythe Beds of the Lower Greensand. Very little chert is found in these quarries but the horizon is that of the Leith Hill Chert Beds. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914.
Page 41 P804711 Sandstone Quarries, Pitch Hill. The calcareous sandstone is quarried in the Hythe Beds of the Lower Greensand. Very little chert is found in these quarries but the horizon is that of the Leith Hill Chert Beds. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914.
Page 41 P804712 Sandstone Quarries, Pitch Hill. The calcareous sandstone is quarried in the Hythe Beds of the Lower Greensand. Very little chert is found in these quarries but the horizon is that of the Leith Hill Chert Beds. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914.
Page 43 P804713 Carstone at the Rookery Section near Wotton. The Rookery fault runs in an east and west direction, the beds on the north being thrown down about 60 feet. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914.
Page 43 P804714 Carstone at the Rookery Section near Wotton. The Rookery fault runs in an east and west direction, the beds on the north being thrown down about 60 feet. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914.
Page 43 P804715 Pitch Hill. Lower Ferruginous Sands = Hythe Beds. These sands form the lowest beds of the Hythe Beds and underlie the Bargate Stone. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914.
Page 43 P804716 Wotton. Bargate Stone in road section. Motor excursion in Surrey, June 6th 1914.
Page 45 P804717 The Great Pit, Burham. Excursion to Blue Bell Hill and Burham, June 20th 1914. [Three photographs combined to give continuous landscape view.].
Page 45 P804718 The Great Pit, Burham. Excursion to Blue Bell Hill and Burham, June 20th 1914.
Page 45 P804719 The Great Pit, Burham. Excursion to Blue Bell Hill and Burham, June 20th 1914.
Page 47 P804720 Excursion to Blue Bell Hill and Burham, June 20th 1914.
Page 47 P804721 Excursion to Blue Bell Hill and Burham, June 20th 1914.
Page 47 P804722 Excursion to Blue Bell Hill and Burham, June 20th 1914.
Page 47 P804723 Excursion to Blue Bell Hill and Burham, June 20th 1914.
Page 49 P804724 Swan's Neck Chalk Pit, Burham. Excursion to Blue Bell Hill and Burham, June 20th 1914.
Page 49 P804725 Swan's Neck Chalk Pit, Burham. Excursion to Blue Bell Hill and Burham, June 20th 1914.
Page 49 P804726 Mill Bay Chalk Pit, Burham. Excursion to Blue Bell Hill and Burham, June 20th 1914.
Page 49 P804727 Mill Bay Chalk Pit, Burham. Excursion to Blue Bell Hill and Burham, June 20th 1914.
Page 51 P804728 Section in Lower Ferruginous Sands at Sandhills, Witley. The lowest beds of the Hythe Beds. Lower Greensand. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 51 P804729 Section in Lower Ferruginous Sands at Sandhills, Witley. The lowest beds of the Hythe Beds. Lower Greensand. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 51 P804730 On the road home, a halt by the way. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 51 P804731 On the road home, a halt by the way. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 53 P804732 Light sandy clay, classed as Passage Loams at Brook Street Pit. These loams form a passage bed between the Lower Ferruginous Sands of the Hythe Beds and the Atherfield Clay. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 53 P804733 Light sandy clay, classed as Passage Loams at Brook Street Pit. These loams form a passage bed between the Lower Ferruginous Sands of the Hythe Beds and the Atherfield Clay. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 53 P804734 Brook Street Pit. General view, Atherfield Clay with Ferruginous Sands above, and Passage Loams between. . Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914. Added note: Atherfield Clay; Passage Loams; Lower Ferruginous Sands. [Bottom to top.].
Page 53 P804735 Brook Street Pit. Atherfield Clay. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 55 P804736 From Hindhead, looking north-east towards Witley. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 55 P804737 Looking south towards Shottermill. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 55 P804738 The Devil's Punch Bowl. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914. [Two photographs combined to give continuous landscape view.].
Page 57 P804739 Views over the Weald from Hindhead towards the South Downs. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 57 P804740 Views over the Weald from Hindhead towards the South Downs. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 57 P804741 Views over the Weald from Hindhead towards the South Downs. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 57 P804742 Views over the Weald from Hindhead towards the South Downs. Excursion to Hindhead, July 4th 1914.
Page 59 P804743 Basement Bed of London Clay, Peill's Pit, Bromley South. Excursion to Bickley and Chiselhurst, July 11th 1914.
Page 59 P804744 Peill's Pit, South Bromley. Excursion to Bickley and Chiselhurst, July 11th 1914. The above sections show London Clay 1ft. To 18ft., Basement Bed 3 ft. Below this the Woolwich and Oldhaven beds which consist of two members of the upper part alternating beds of Clay and Sand 24 ft. thick, the Lower Pebble Bed seen to a depth of 38 feet.
Page 59 P804745 Peill's Pit, South Bromley. Excursion to Bickley and Chiselhurst, July 11th 1914. The above sections show London Clay 1ft. To 18ft., Basement Bed 3 ft. Below this the Woolwich and Oldhaven beds which consist of two members of the upper part alternating beds of Clay and Sand 24 ft. thick, the Lower Pebble Bed seen to a depth of 38 feet. Added note: The chalk has been carted here.
Page 61 P804746 Blackheath Pebble Beds at Peill's Pit, Bromley South. Excursion to Bickley and Chiselhurst, July 11th 1914.
Page 61 P804747 Blackheath Pebble Beds at Peill's Pit, Bromley South. Excursion to Bickley and Chiselhurst, July 11th 1914.
Page 61 P804748 Blackheath Pebble Beds at Peill's Pit, Bromley South. Excursion to Bickley and Chiselhurst, July 11th 1914.
Page 61 P804749 Blackheath Pebble Beds at Peill's Pit, Bromley South. Excursion to Bickley and Chiselhurst, July 11th 1914.
Page 63 P804750 Rock Pit, Elmstead. Excursion to Bickley and Chiselhurst, July 11th 1914. The Blackheath Beds here consist of about 80 feet of sand and pebbles of which 20 feet are exposed in the pit. Fossils are numerous, many species having been recorded. The shells are easily extracted but very fragile.
Page 63 P804751 Rock Pit, Elmstead. Excursion to Bickley and Chiselhurst, July 11th 1914. The Blackheath Beds here consist of about 80 feet of sand and pebbles of which 20 feet are exposed in the pit. Fossils are numerous, many species having been recorded. The shells are easily extracted but very fragile.
Page 63 P804752 Layer of pebbles splitting up into five, with alternate layers of fine sand. Excursion to Bickley and Chiselhurst, July 11th 1914.
Page 63 P804753 False or current bedded Blackheath Beds consisting of pebbles and sand. Excursion to Bickley and Chiselhurst, July 11th 1914.
Page 65 P804754 Robinson's Pit, Soulbury. Soulbury ? Pit in Glacial Gravels. This is on the Watershed between the Thames and the Ouse. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 65 P804755 Robinson's Pit, Soulbury. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914. Section of Glacial Gravels containing pebbles and boulders of chalk, flint, Jurassic limestone, Liassic and Oxfordian Gryphkaeae [Gryphaea] and Belemnites, Carboniferous Sandstone and pink and white quartz.
Page 65 P804756 Soulbury. Eroded surface and pipes in Glacial Gravels caused by the decalcification of the gravel by percolating water. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 65 P804757 Soulbury. Eroded surface and pipes in Glacial Gravels caused by the decalcification of the gravel by percolating water. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 67 P804758 Stewkley. Hedges Pit in Kimmeridge Clay. Owing to glacial action the clay is thrown into folds and in places overlaid by boulder clay. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 67 P804759 Stewkley. Hedges Pit in Kimmeridge Clay. Owing to glacial action the clay is thrown into folds and in places overlaid by boulder clay. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 67 P804760 Hedges Pit. Kimmeridge Clay thrown into folds with axes running WNW to ESE. These are of glacial origin and are at right angles to the most probable direction of the ice flow at this point. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 67 P804761 Hedges Pit. Kimmeridge Clay thrown into folds with axes running WNW to ESE. These are of glacial origin and are at right angles to the most probable direction of the ice flow at this point. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 69 P804762 Bliss's Pit, Stewkley. Section of Kimmeridge Clay in brick-yard. This is a slightly higher zone than that of Hedges Pit. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 69 P804763 Bliss's Pit, Stewkley. Section of Kimmeridge Clay in brick-yard. This is a slightly higher zone than that of Hedges Pit. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 69 P804764 Kimmeridge Clay with Septaria. Orbiculoidea latissima was found here but to reptilian remains have been discovered. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914. Added note in pencil: I got some from the men some years ago. M.S.T.
Page 69 P804765 Cone-in-cone structure round Septaria, the cracks being lined with calcite in the form of nail-headed crystals. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 71 P804766 Warren Farm sand pit. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914. This is the most northerly occurrence in England of typical Portland Beds. Here we have the sand below, then the limestone with large specimens of Perisphinctes and the Purbeck Beds on top. Added note: Portland Sand; Portland Limestone; Purbeck. [Bottom to top.].
Page 71 P804767 Warren Farm sand pit. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914. This is the most northerly occurrence in England of typical Portland Beds. Here we have the sand below, then the limestone with large specimens of Perisphinctes and the Purbeck Beds on top. Added note: Portland Sand; Portland Limestone; Purbeck. [Bottom to top.].
Page 71 P804768 Junction of Purbeck and Portland beds. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914. Added note: Portland Limestone; Purbeck Beds. [Bottom to top.].
Page 71 P804769 Junction of Portland Sand and Limestone. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914. Added note: Portland Sand; Portland Limestone. [Bottom to top.].
Page 73 P804770 Littleworth Brickfield, Wing. Glacial Gravels overlain by Boulder Clay. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 73 P804771 The Lower Greensand which is 200 ft thick at Leighton Buzzard and the Portland and Purbeck beds seen in the previous pit are here absent. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914. Added note: Kimmeridge Clay; Gault; Sands and fine gravel; Chalky Boulder Clay; Coarse morainic gravels. [Bottom to top.].
Page 73 P804772 West doorway, Stewkley Church with characteristic zigzag ornament. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 73 P804773 Late Norman tower, Stewkley Church. Excursion to Soulbury, Stewkley and Wing, July 18th 1914.
Page 75 P804774 Blackheath Pebble Beds at 790 feet OD. Chaldon Farm, Pit A. Excursion to North Downs near Marden Park, September 26th 1914. Here at the Caterham outlier there are many large angular flints, mostly but little broken and which clearly have not been carried far, collected together in patches.
Page 75 P804775 Blackheath Pebble Beds at 770 feet OD. B or Middle Pit, SSW of Chaldon Farm, a mass of sandy pebble beds with nests of large unrolled flints. . Excursion to North Downs near Marden Park, September 26th 1914.
Page 75 P804776 Blackheath Pebble Beds. C or Hanging Wood Pit below than 700 ft. OD. Excursion to North Downs near Marden Park, September 26th 1914. This is a deeper section in the same beds but a pinnacle of chalk is seen with clayey material next to it. This corresponds with that seen at Worms Heath in 1910. Added note: Pinnacle of chalk.
Page 75 P804777 Blackheath Pebble Beds. C or Hanging Wood Pit below than 700 ft. OD. Excursion to North Downs near Marden Park, September 26th 1914. This is a deeper section in the same beds but a pinnacle of chalk is seen with clayey material next to it. This corresponds with that seen at Worms Heath in 1910.
Page 77 P804778 D Pit at 600 OD ? 30 feet of Blackheath Pebble Beds near the foot of the chalk escarpment. Excursion to North Downs near Marden Park, September 26th 1914. At the entrance of this pit on the south the chalk is seen below the pebble beds, between which is a clayey earth of a greenish tinge somewhat suggestive of the base bed of the Thanet Sand.
Page 77 P804779 D Pit at 600 OD ? 30 feet of Blackheath Pebble Beds near the foot of the chalk escarpment. Excursion to North Downs near Marden Park, September 26th 1914. At the entrance of this pit on the south the chalk is seen below the pebble beds, between which is a clayey earth of a greenish tinge somewhat suggestive of the base bed of the Thanet Sand.
Page 77 P804780 Here are many unrolled flints as well as well rolled pebbles, but no sub-angular pieces. . Excursion to North Downs near Marden Park, September 26th 1914.
Page 77 P804781 Blackheath Pebble Beds. Excursion to North Downs near Marden Park, September 26th 1914. It is only in these outliers where the pebble beds have cut across well over the flinty chalk that the unrolled flints occur. Where the Blackheath Beds are separated from the chalk by Woolwich and Thanet Beds, no unrolled flints are found.
Page 81 P804782 Tunbridge Wells Sands of the Hastings Sands ? Wealden. Waterloo Rocks, Tunbridge Wells Common. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916.
Page 81 P804783 Tunbridge Wells Sands of the Hastings Sands ? Wealden. Waterloo Rocks, Tunbridge Wells Common. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916.
Page 81 P804784 This row of little openings is caused by water percolating through the sandstone which in winter forms a row of icicles which in melting carries away the sand. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. Added note: an arrow to indicate the openings.
Page 81 P804785 Joints in sandstone enlarged by denudation. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916.
Page 83 P804786 High Rocks, Tunbridge Wells. These Wealden rocks which are such an important feature in this part of Kent are the upper beds of the Hastings Sands. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. They have the appearance of being very hard and massive but generally it is the outside only which is hard, so that if this shell is removed the inside can be easily broken down by the fingers. They appear to have been preserved by the regular size of the sand grains of which it is built up and to their planes of division being regular and few joints to allow the wind and rain to penetrate.
Page 83 P804787 High Rocks, Tunbridge Wells. These Wealden rocks which are such an important feature in this part of Kent are the upper beds of the Hastings Sands. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. They have the appearance of being very hard and massive but generally it is the outside only which is hard, so that if this shell is removed the inside can be easily broken down by the fingers. They appear to have been preserved by the regular size of the sand grains of which it is built up and to their planes of division being regular and few joints to allow the wind and rain to penetrate.
Page 83 P804788 High Rocks, Tunbridge Wells. These Wealden rocks which are such an important feature in this part of Kent are the upper beds of the Hastings Sands. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. They have the appearance of being very hard and massive but generally it is the outside only which is hard, so that if this shell is removed the inside can be easily broken down by the fingers. They appear to have been preserved by the regular size of the sand grains of which it is built up and to their planes of division being regular and few joints to allow the wind and rain to penetrate.
Page 83 P804789 High Rocks, Tunbridge Wells. These Wealden rocks which are such an important feature in this part of Kent are the upper beds of the Hastings Sands. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. They have the appearance of being very hard and massive but generally it is the outside only which is hard, so that if this shell is removed the inside can be easily broken down by the fingers. They appear to have been preserved by the regular size of the sand grains of which it is built up and to their planes of division being regular and few joints to allow the wind and rain to penetrate.
Page 85 P804790 High Rocks, Tunbridge Wells. These joints or vertical fissures were originally caused by the sandstone shrinking on drying, and afterwards made larger by the effects of the weather. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916.
Page 85 P804791 High Rocks, Tunbridge Wells. These joints or vertical fissures were originally caused by the sandstone shrinking on drying, and afterwards made larger by the effects of the weather. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916.
Page 85 P804792 High Rocks, Tunbridge Wells. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. Undercutting of many of these surfaces is owing to the lower part being softer and more rapidly removed by dust erosion, and the repeated peeling in summer time of a layer of moss or liverwort.
Page 85 P804793 High Rocks, Tunbridge Wells. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. Undercutting of many of these surfaces is owing to the lower part being softer and more rapidly removed by dust erosion, and the repeated peeling in summer time of a layer of moss or liverwort.
Page 87 P804794 High Rocks Lane. Characteristic patches of honeycomb weathering are well seen here. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. It shows that the oxide of iron that cements the sand grains together and gives the rock the powers of resistance to weather is very unequally distributed, much having been abstracted by the percolation of water and other agencies more obscure. The pattern is considered to have originated by the breaking up of a damp surface into circular damp spots, thus driving the cementing material to the outside of the circle when the dry sandy interior is removed by the wind.
Page 87 P804795 High Rocks Lane. Characteristic patches of honeycomb weathering are well seen here. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. It shows that the oxide of iron that cements the sand grains together and gives the rock the powers of resistance to weather is very unequally distributed, much having been abstracted by the percolation of water and other agencies more obscure. The pattern is considered to have originated by the breaking up of a damp surface into circular damp spots, thus driving the cementing material to the outside of the circle when the dry sandy interior is removed by the wind.
Page 87 P804796 High Rocks Lane. Characteristic patches of honeycomb weathering are well seen here. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. It shows that the oxide of iron that cements the sand grains together and gives the rock the powers of resistance to weather is very unequally distributed, much having been abstracted by the percolation of water and other agencies more obscure. The pattern is considered to have originated by the breaking up of a damp surface into circular damp spots, thus driving the cementing material to the outside of the circle when the dry sandy interior is removed by the wind.
Page 87 P804797 High Rocks Lane. Characteristic patches of honeycomb weathering are well seen here. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. It shows that the oxide of iron that cements the sand grains together and gives the rock the powers of resistance to weather is very unequally distributed, much having been abstracted by the percolation of water and other agencies more obscure. The pattern is considered to have originated by the breaking up of a damp surface into circular damp spots, thus driving the cementing material to the outside of the circle when the dry sandy interior is removed by the wind.
GA004 P804798 Rusthall Common. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. The Toad Rock is a ?land stack? the general form of which has been determined by the intersection of joints, its isolated position being due to circum-denudation while the usual undercutting has contributed towards the striking resemblance to a toad.
GA004 P804799 Rusthall Common. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. The Toad Rock is a ?land stack? the general form of which has been determined by the intersection of joints, its isolated position being due to circum-denudation while the usual undercutting has contributed towards the striking resemblance to a toad.
GA004 P804800 Rusthall Common. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. The Toad Rock is a ?land stack? the general form of which has been determined by the intersection of joints, its isolated position being due to circum-denudation while the usual undercutting has contributed towards the striking resemblance to a toad.
GA004 P804801 Rusthall Common. Back of Toad Rock. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. The Toad Rock is a ?land stack? the general form of which has been determined by the intersection of joints, its isolated position being due to circum-denudation while the usual undercutting has contributed towards the striking resemblance to a toad.
GA004 P804802 Rusthall Common. Joints in Tunbridge Wells Sands. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916.
GA004 P804803 Rusthall Common. The master joint called ?Foxes Hole? which crosses the common and forms the back of the Toad Rock. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916.
GA004 P804804 Rusthall Common. The ?Parson's Head?. This shows how the drips are wearing away the lower stone. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916.
GA004 P804805 Rusthall Common. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. These sands were originally rich in iron oxide which is constantly being removed by the percolation of water and other agencies, both chemical and organic, so that they are becoming now completely decolourised, the ground being a very fine white sand.
GA004 P804806 Rusthall Common. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. These sands were originally rich in iron oxide which is constantly being removed by the percolation of water and other agencies, both chemical and organic, so that they are becoming now completely decolourised, the ground being a very fine white sand.
GA004 P804807 Rusthall Common. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. These sands were originally rich in iron oxide which is constantly being removed by the percolation of water and other agencies, both chemical and organic, so that they are becoming now completely decolourised, the ground being a very fine white sand.
GA004 P804808 Rusthall Common. Excursion to Tunbridge Wells, May 13th 1916. These sands were originally rich in iron oxide which is constantly being removed by the percolation of water and other agencies, both chemical and organic, so that they are becoming now completely decolourised, the ground being a very fine white sand.
GA004 P804809 Scarp Drift overlying Upper Greensand. Horse Shaw, Godstone. Excursion to Godstone, June 17th 1916.
GA004 P804810 Scarp Drift overlying Upper Greensand. Horse Shaw, Godstone. Excursion to Godstone, June 17th 1916.
GA004 P804811 Scarp Drift overlying Greensand near Quarry Farm. Excursion to Godstone, June 17th 1916.
GA004 P804812 Open working of Upper Greensand. Excursion to Godstone, June 17th 1916.
GA004 P804813 Bishops Chalk Pit, corner of Headley Road, Ashtead Park, showing junction of zones of Marsupites and Micraster cor anguinum. Excursion to Ashtead and Headley, June 26th 1916.
GA004 P804814 Bishops Chalk Pit, corner of Headley Road, Ashtead Park, showing junction of zones of Marsupites and Micraster cor anguinum. Excursion to Ashtead and Headley, June 26th 1916.
GA004 P804815 Glacial gravel, Headley Heath. Excursion to Ashtead and Headley, June 26th 1916.
GA004 P804816 Section of glacial gravel showing flint pebbles on end. Excursion to Ashtead and Headley, June 26th 1916.
GA004 P804817 Sections of Upper Bagshot Sands capped by Plateau Gravel. Sandpit north of Chobham Place, Chobham Common. Excursion to Sunningdale, July 1st 1916.
GA004 P804818 Sections of Upper Bagshot Sands capped by Plateau Gravel. Sandpit north of Chobham Place, Chobham Common. Excursion to Sunningdale, July 1st 1916.
GA004 P804819 Lower Bagshot Sands. Rifle Range, Portnall Park. Excursion to Sunningdale, July 1st 1916.
GA004 P804820 This bourne in the upper portion of the Ravensbourne Valley which is normally dry has burst out after an interval of 33 years. [Excursion to] Hayes, Keston, and Upper Valley of the Ravensbourne, July 8th 1916. Owing to the abnormal height of the water level in the valley floor it has saturated the valley gravel and given rise to the bourne. Added note: This pond 8 to 10 acres in extent near Hayes Station now fills the gravel pit and is an offshoot from the bourne.
GA004 P804821 This bourne in the upper portion of the Ravensbourne Valley which is normally dry has burst out after an interval of 33 years. [Excursion to] Hayes, Keston, and Upper Valley of the Ravensbourne, July 8th 1916. Owing to the abnormal height of the water level in the valley floor it has saturated the valley gravel and given rise to the bourne. Added note: This pit which is in the direct course of the bourne is now filled with water.
GA004 P804822 Near cross roads north of West Wickham Church. The uprise of the bourne occurs 1/4 of a mile south west of this point at about 220 feet OD. [Excursion to] Hayes, Keston, and Upper Valley of the Ravensbourne, July 8th 1916.
GA004 P804823 Near cross roads north of West Wickham Church. The uprise of the bourne occurs 1/4 of a mile south west of this point at about 220 feet OD. [Excursion to] Hayes, Keston, and Upper Valley of the Ravensbourne, July 8th 1916.
GA004 P804824 Section of Blackheath Pebble Beds, Hayes Common. [Excursion to] Hayes, Keston, and Upper Valley of the Ravensbourne, July 8th 1916.
GA004 P804825 Section of Blackheath Pebble Beds, Hayes Common. [Excursion to] Hayes, Keston, and Upper Valley of the Ravensbourne, July 8th 1916.
GA004 P804826 Faulting in Reading Sands covered with Reading pebble drift. Excursion to Coweroft Brickfield, Chesham, July 15th 1916.
GA004 P804827 Faulting in Reading Sands covered with Reading pebble drift. Excursion to Coweroft Brickfield, Chesham, July 15th 1916.
GA004 P804828 Channel filled with drift. Excursion to Coweroft Brickfield, Chesham, July 15th 1916.
GA004 P804829 Showing formation of terraces owing to variation of the level of the water. Excursion to Coweroft Brickfield, Chesham, July 15th 1916.
GA004 P804830 Transported mass of chalk surrounded by Reading pebble drift. Excursion to Coweroft Brickfield, Chesham, July 15th 1916.
GA004 P804831 Reading Sands showing denudation owing to a storm. Excursion to Coweroft Brickfield, Chesham, July 15th 1916.
GA004 P804832 Reading Sands showing denudation owing to a storm. Excursion to Coweroft Brickfield, Chesham, July 15th 1916.
GA004 P804833 Bargate Beds, Raikes Hollow. [Excursion to] Gomshall and Shere, September 9th, 1916.
GA004 P804834 Bargate Beds, Raikes Hollow. [Excursion to] Gomshall and Shere, September 9th, 1916.
GA004 P804835 The chalk escarpment above Gomshall. Hackhurst Downs on the left. Excursion to Gomshall, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804836 Box stones from Pliocene Gravel, Netley Heath. Excursion to Gomshall, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804837 Ironstone with gravel and pebbles cemented together, Netley Heath. Excursion to Gomshall, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804838 Ironstone with gravel and pebbles cemented together, Netley Heath. Excursion to Gomshall, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804839 Netley Heath. Gravelly clay with flints containing greensand, chert and ironstone. Excursion to Gomshall, [September 23rd 1916.]
GA004 P804840 Netley Heath. Pliocene sand. Excursion to Gomshall, [September 23rd 1916.]
GA004 P804841 Netley Heath. Ironstone box stones from the above gravel. Excursion to Gomshall, [September 23rd 1916.]
GA004 P804842 Netley Heath. Frost fractures on flint. Excursion to Gomshall, [September 23rd 1916.]
GA004 P804843 Pliocene sand and gravelly clay-with-flints. Excursion to Netley Heath, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804844 Pliocene sand. Excursion to Netley Heath, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804845 Section in Pliocene sand. Excursion to Netley Heath, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804846 Clay-with-flints. Excursion to Netley Heath, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804847 Clay-with-flints. [Excursion to] Newlands Corner, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804848 Detailed view from the previous section showing unworn angular flints. [Excursion to] Newlands Corner, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804849 Typical sedentary clay-with-flints associated with sand pebbles, and partly rolled flints and greensand material. [Excursion to] Newlands Corner, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804850 Typical sedentary clay-with-flints associated with sand pebbles, and partly rolled flints and greensand material. [Excursion to] Newlands Corner, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804851 Albury. False bedding in Folkestone Sands. Excursion to Gomshall, [September 23rd 1916.]
GA004 P804852 Albury. Section in Folkestone Sands showing false bedding. Excursion to Gomshall, [September 23rd 1916.]
GA004 P804853 Albury. Section in Folkestone Sands showing false bedding. Excursion to Gomshall, [September 23rd 1916.]
GA004 P804854 Albury. Brickfield pit in Gault with Folkestone Sands. Weston Wood, Albury. Excursion to Gomshall, [September 23rd 1916.]
GA004 P804855 Albury. Brickfield pit in Gault with Folkestone Sands. Weston Wood, Albury. Excursion to Gomshall, [September 23rd 1916.]
GA004 P804856 Albury. Chalky drift above Gault. This drift contains sarsens. Weston Wood. Excursion to Gomshall, [September 23rd 1916.]
GA004 P804857 Albury. Chalky drift containing sarsens above Gault. Weston Wood, Albury. Excursion to Gomshall, [September 23rd 1916.]
GA004 P804858 This pool is caused by a spring which comes from the base of the chalk. The Silent Pool, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804859 This pool is caused by a spring which comes from the base of the chalk. The Silent Pool, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804860 The Silent Pool, September 23rd 1916.
GA004 P804861 The Silent Pool, September 23rd 1916.