Editing Urban groundwater in Africa

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===Over-abstraction of groundwater===
 
===Over-abstraction of groundwater===
  
As urbanisation continues, the demand for water is increasing in urban areas. This demand is being partially met by municipal piped water supplies. Where urban areas have easy access to highly productive aquifers, municipal supplies may be at least partially sourced from groundwater within or near urban boundaries. If municipal abstraction is greater than recharge, it this can lead to localised falling groundwater levels.
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As urbanisation continues, the demand for water is increasing in urban areas. This demand is being only partially met by municipal piped water supplies. Where urban areas have easy access to highly productive aquifers, municipal supplies can be at least partially sourced from groundwater. If municipal pumping is greater than recharge, it this can lead to localised falling groundwater levels
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Because in most towns and cities in Africa, municipal piped water supplies aren't keeping pace with demand, more and more urban residents are turning to 'self supply' from groundwater sources. This involves digging or drilling private domestic wells or boreholes. Urban community water supplies may also be sourced from boreholes or wells. These boreholes and wells tend to be shallow. As well as being vulnerable to contamination, such shallow aquifers can also be vulnerable to over-abstraction, if too much groundwater is pumped out. The result can be serious localised aquifer depletion, which may lead to boreholes and wells drying up if groundwater levels fall too far; and also brings risks of inducing seepage of contaminated water, or saline intrusion in coastal areas; and can also cause land subsidence (Lapworth et al. 2017).  
  
Because in most towns and cities in Africa, municipal piped water supplies aren't keeping pace with demand, more and more urban residents are turning to 'self supply' from groundwater sources. This involves digging or drilling private domestic wells or boreholes. Urban community water supplies may also be sourced from boreholes or wells. These boreholes and wells tend to be shallow. As well as being vulnerable to contamination, such shallow aquifers can also be vulnerable to over-abstraction, if too much groundwater is pumped out. The result can be serious localised aquifer depletion, which may lead to boreholes and wells drying up if groundwater levels fall too far; and also brings risks of inducing seepage of contaminated water, or saline intrusion in coastal areas; and can also cause land subsidence (Foster 2018).
 
  
  

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