Difference between revisions of "User:Scotfot/sandbox"

From Earthwise
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 67: Line 67:
 
Output of lead from Scottish mines during the period 1850-1920
 
Output of lead from Scottish mines during the period 1850-1920
  
<References />
+
<references />
  
 
[[Category:Welsh geologists]]
 
[[Category:Welsh geologists]]
  
 
[[Category:Pioneers of the British Geological Survey]]
 
[[Category:Pioneers of the British Geological Survey]]

Revision as of 22:21, 12 December 2021

© Natural Resources Wales. All rights reserved. For use contact: Natural Resources Wales
Edward Greenly

Edward Greenly (1861–1951)

Cofir am Edward Greenly yn bennaf am ei arolwg daearegol o Ynys Môn, gwaith y bu wrthi am bron pum mlynedd ar hugain o’i fywyd.

Image caption: Edward Greenly. Llun trwy garedigrwydd Terry Williams

Edward Greenly (1861–1951)

Campwaith pennaf Edward Greenly oedd cwblhau arolwg daearegol manwl o Ynys Môn. Cyhoeddwyd The Geology of Anglesey (Volume 1 and Volume 2) mewn dwy gyfrol yn 1919 ac yna yn 1920 fap daearegol ar y raddfa un fodfedd i’r filltir. Er bod rhannau o’r gwaith wedi’u diweddaru yn ystod y degawdau dilynol, erys ei astudiaeth yn glasur o fri rhyngwladol.

Mapio Môn

Wrth fapio ynys Môn, gwnaeth Greenly ddefnydd mawr o syniadau tectonig a ddatblygodd wrth iddo fynd i’r afael â gwaith maes cynharach yn Ucheldiroedd yr Alban. Roedd tair prif broblem yn ei wynebu: prinder brigiadau da, yn enwedig mewn ardaloedd mewndirol allweddol bwysig; presenoldeb creigiau gorchuddiol clytiog yn cuddio yn aml y baslawr Cyn-Gambriaidd hŷn; a phresenoldeb toriadau tectonig megis ffawtiau a chylchfaoedd croesrym a oedd yn aml yn rhwystro’r gwaith o gydberthyn gwahanol ddilyniannau o greigiau. Chwaraeodd ei wraig Annie Greenly (Barnard gynt), a oedd yn rhannu ei ddiddordeb mewn daeareg a diwinyddiaeth, rôl hollbwysig drwy baratoi’r mynegai i’w gyfrol.

Ganed Greenly ym Mryste ac fe’i haddysgwyd yng Ngholeg Clifton. Bu’n fyfyriwr yng Ngholeg y Brifysgol, Llundain, cyn ymuno â’r Arolwg Daearegol yn 1889. Yn gyntaf, bu gofyn iddo baratoi arolwg o Ucheldiroedd gogledd-orllewin yr Alban. Daeth yn ffrind agos ac yn gydweithiwr i Ben Peach yr oedd ei archwiliadau wedi bod yn gyfrwng i ddatrys adeiledd cymhleth yr Alban (gan gynnwys adnabod a sylweddoli arwyddocâd Gwthiad Moine). Rhoddodd Greenly y gorau i’w waith gyda’r Arolwg yn 1895 er mwyn iddo, o’i ben a’i bastwn ei hun. roi cychwyn ar ei arolwg o Ynys Môn.

Cyfraniadau pwysig i ddaeareg

Yn gydnabyddiaeth am ei gyfraniadau pwysig i ddaeareg, cafodd Edward Greenly ei dderbyn yn aelod er anrhydedd o gymdeithasau daearegol Caeredin a Lerpwl, a Chymdeithas Hynafiaethwyr Môn. Dyfarnwyd iddo Fedal Lyell, fawr ei bri, y Gymdeithas Ddaearegol yn 1920, medal Cymdeithas Ddaearegol Lerpwl yn 1933 a doethuriaeth er anrhydedd Prifysgol Cymru yn 1920.

Ar y cyd â Howel Williams, cyhoeddodd Greenly Methods of Geological Surveying yn 1930 a’i hunangofiant A Hand through Time: Memories Romantic and Geological a ymddangosodd yn 1938. Bu farw ym Mangor yn 1951 ac yn briodol iawn fe’i claddwyd ym mynwent Llangristiolus, Ynys Môn. Mae ei fedd wedi’i gyfnodi’n Safle Geoamrywiaeth o Bwysigrwydd Rhanbarthol (RIGS).

Lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland

The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland. Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. XVII By G.V. Wilson. The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland. Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. XVII. Edinburgh: HMSO, 1921.

Bibliographic reference: Wilson, G.V. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Scotland. Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. XVII. The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland.By G. V. Wilson, B.Sc. With contributions by John S. Flett, LL.D., F.R.S. Published by order of The Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury.

Edinburgh: Printed Under The Authority of His Majesty's Stationery Office by Morrison & Gibb, Limited, Tanfield. And to be purchased from E. Stanford, 12, 13 And 14 Long Acre, London; W. & A. K. Johnston, Limited, 2 St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh; Hodges, Figgis & Co., Limited, 104 Grafton Street, Dublin. From any Agent for the sale of Ordnance Survey Maps, or through any Bookseller, or from the Director-General, Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton. 1921. Price 7s. 6d. Net,

Preface In Scotland the ores of lead and zinc have a wide distribution and have been worked for several centuries, though only on a small scale, except at Wanlockhead and Leadhills. Copper ores are less frequent, and nickel ores are found in only a few places. Mr. Wilson has collected information from a great variety of sources, and has personally inspected all the more important occurrences. The chapters on Caithness, Orkney and Shetland were contributed by me. It is very probable that many of the less important veins have escaped notice; but this Memoir contains a brief general account of the known mineral resources of Scotland in respect of lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores. We are indebted to many proprietors, factors, agents and mining engineers for assistance in compiling this handbook, and especially to the managers of Leadhills, Wanlockhead, Wood of Cree and Tyndrum Mines, who have given us every facility for examining their mines and records. JOHN S: FLETT, Director. Geological Survey Office, 28 Jermyn Street, London, S.W. 1, 8th September 1920. Chapter 1 Lead and zinc ores Introduction Lead ores have a wide distribution in Scotland and, as (Plate 1) shows, veins occur in nearly every county. Many of these have been worked at one time or another, but for the most part only on a small scale and to no great depth, and little is now known of the quality of the ore produced. In many cases these old mines have fallen in, and their sites are now covered up and grassed over so that without reopening them it is impossible to form any reliable estimate of their value. The principal districts in which lead mining has been actively carried on during the past century are: Strontian and Islay in Argyllshire, Tyndrum in Perthshire, Minnigaff in Kirkcudbrightshire (near Newton Stewart), Leadhills in Lanarkshire and Wanlockhead in Dumfriesshire. Of these, Leadhills and Wanlockhead have produced ore continuously during the whole period. Mining in the other districts named has been in abeyance for a considerable number of years, but owing to new conditions created by the war the old mines at Tyndrum and Newton Stewart are being reopened and trials have also been made on a new vein at Achanarras, in Caithness. Historical notes

Metalliferous mining is an old industry in Scotland, and the mining of lead ores was probably carried on on a small scale at different centres at a very early period. The finding of bronze and stone implements[1] in some old surface workings at Leadhills and at Wanlockhead has led to the suggestion that these may date back to pre-Roman times. There is no evidence, however, that the Romans worked lead in Scotland, although a few pigs of Roman lead[2] have occasionally been found. According to Pennant[3] the mines of Islay may have been worked by the Norwegian invaders during their occupation of the country. Probably the earliest authentic record of lead raining refers to the Leadhills district, where in 1239[4] a grant of lands and a lead mine was made to the monks of Newbattle by Sir David Lindsay, and lead ore was sent from there to Rutherglen in 1264.[5] Apparently the amount of lead ore raised in the country was not large, since in 1292 John Comyn,[6] Earl of Buchan, got permission to import lead ore from the Isle of Man. Soon after this lead mines were working in West Argyllshire, and the accounts of the Constable of Tarbert[7] contain an entry of the payment of twelve pence for charcoal and labourers' wages for smelting lead ore. A lead mine was being worked on the confines of the parish of Glenorchy in Argyllshire in 1424, and it is interesting to note that it was declared a Royal Mine[8] under a grant to the King by the Scottish Parliament of all lead mines which yielded more than 1½d. worth of silver to the pound of lead. Soon afterwards this mine was closed down and abandoned.

Up to about the sixteenth century[9] many of the mines seem to have been worked for silver principally, and the lead was often lost during cupellation. Before the end of that century the extraction of silver seems to have become unprofitable and the mines were worked for lead alone. This was often smelted on the spot in shallow hearths, and the silver neglected. In many cases the ore was exported, and the early grants of mines often gave permission to export beyond the seas[10] if through lack of fuel or other lawful occasion the ore could not be properly smelted at home.[11] This export trade was carried on mainly through the Port of Leith,[12] and between 1585 and 1590,[13] 15,717 "stones" of lead ore were shipped for foreign use.

The period from the latter part of the fifteenth to the beginning of the seventeenth century was one of great activity in mining and prospecting, due mainly to the discovery of the gold-bearing gravels of the Leadhills district.[14] At one time as many as 300 men were employed here during the summer months, and gold to the value of £100,000 is said to have been collected in three years. The Treasurer's Accounts[15] contain numerous entries of payments of gold, and also the interesting statement that some of it was used to form the Scottish Crown Regalia in 1542. The richer deposits soon became exhausted, and work ceased when the price of a man's labour exceeded 4d. per diem. During the whole of this period an active search for lead ore seems to have been kept up, and many of the Leadhills and Wanlockhead veins were discovered. In 1593[16] the Leadhills mines were in the hands of Thomas Foullis, who seems to have recognised that the gold-fields were unprofitable, and consequently to have concentrated his energies on the development of the lead mines. By 1597[17] the industry appears to have been in a thriving condition, and the Privy Council issued a proclamation to the effect that any one interfering with the carriers of lead should be severely punished, while the latter were authorised to wear a blazon of lead stamped with the Royal Arms and the private mark of the lessee of the mines. In 1606 great excitement was caused by the discovery of the silver-lead mine at Hilderstone,[18] near Bathgate. According to report this mine was very productive for a short time and extravagant hopes were raised, but the richer portion soon became exhausted and the mine was abandoned as unprofitable.

A slump in mining enterprise seems to have set in-during the latter half of the seventeenth century, but interest revived with the discovery of the Alva silver mine in 1711[19] For a short time this mine was very profitable, and is said to have returned a monthly yield of £4000 worth of silver. Like Hilderstone it soon became exhausted, and was eventually abandoned. An active search for lead ore was in progress at this time, and resulted in the opening up of mines at Strontian in 1722, and at Tyndrum in 1739. In 1760 this search for lead brought about the discovery of the Glendinning antimony mine, near Langholm.[20] The Black Craig Mine (Newton Stewart) was accidentally discovered in 1763,[21] and soon afterwards other veins were noticed in that district, one of copper ore being found by Leadhills miners on their way through to Blackcraig[22]

From this time to the end of the Napoleonic wars the lead industry appears to have been in an active state, and large quantities of ore were raised. After the signing of peace in 1815 the price of lead fell rapidly from £32 per ton in 1809 to £13 in 1829. Under these conditions several of the mines were closed down, but apparently only temporarily, as between 1840 and 1880 no less than twenty mines were worked for lead ore, including Woodhead, near Carsphairn, which was discovered in 1839. In the early days the ore was practically always smelted locally in shallow hearths, which were often placed in exposed positions so as to take advantage of the prevailing winds, and peat was generally used for fuel. Coal was first used for the purpose in Scotland at Wanlockhead in 1727, and the hearths of that period have by gradual improvements been developed into the present type of Scotch hearths. The Strontian furnaces were built about 1730, and those at Tyndrum in 1768-9.

Many of the small mines appear to have had furnaces of their own, but others apparently were never equipped with smelting appliances, and the ore was often transported either to Holland or to England. These early furnaces were very inefficient, and a large proportion of the lead was lost in the form of waste fumes. Latterly, by the addition of long condensing flues, much of this fume lead was saved. Straight flues, such as those to be seen at Woodhead, were first used, but it was subsequently found that by "zig-zagging" them a much larger proportion of lead could be recovered. Leadhills and Wanlockhead were fitted with this type, but the former were abandoned about 1890, and since that time the Wanlockhead furnaces, together with some in Glasgow, have been the only ones working in Scotland. The working of zinc ores is a small and recent development of Scottish mining, but a large extraction plant for treating imported ores has recently been erected at Irvine, on the Ayrshire coast.

Statistics

Output of lead ore

Few records exist as to the early output of the mines. We find, however, that in 1466, James Lord Hamilton[23] was summoned by the Abbot of Newbattle for removing 1000 " stones" of lead ore from Friar's Moor (Leadhills district), but no information is given as to the time taken to raise the ore. Between 1585 and 1590, 15,717 " stones " of lead were exported from the country,[24] and papers in the Mar and Kellie charter chest[25] give the amount exported in 1614 as 30,000 "stones," which was valued at £20,000 Scots. The old records of the Tyndruni. Mines show that 5017 tons of lead were raised there between 1741 and 1768. The Strontian mines seem at one time to have yielded about 400 tons of lead per annum, and Wanlockhead and Leadhills may be said to have each produced an average of 1000 tons of lead per annum for the last 120 years. Definite figures of output exist since 1852, and the following tables, taken from the Mining Statistics issued by the Geological Survey and from the Home Office Reports, give the total output and other information concerning all mines worked from that time to the present day. Output of lead from Scottish mines during the period 1850-1920

  1. J. R. S. Hunter, The Silurian Districts of Leadhills and Wanlockhead, Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, vol. vii., 1884, p. 376.
  2. Daniel Wilson, Prehistoric Annals of Scotland," vol. ii., 1863, p. 64.
  3. Pennant, A Tour of Scotland, vol. ii., 1790, p. 250.
  4. G. V. hying, The Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, 1864, vol. i., p 50
  5. Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p.xxxiv.; also Compot. Camer. Scot. (Bannatyne Club), vol. i., p. 48.
  6. Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, , p. xxxiv.; also Stevenson, Historical Documents, Scotland, vol. i., p. 329.
  7. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. viii., 1793, p. 351.Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, pp. lx. and 2. Scots Acts, vol. ii., p. 5, c. 13.
  8. Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.
  9. Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.; also Analecta Scotica, p. 20.
  10. Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.; also Analecta Scotica, p. 85.
  11. Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.; also Analecta Scotica, pp. 91-94.
  12. Lesley, De origins, etc., Scotorum, 1675, p. 11.
  13. Cottonian MS. (Reprinted by J. R. S. Hunter), The Silurian Districts of Leadhills and Wanlockhead, Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, vol. vii., 1884, p. 388.
  14. Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. a-v.; also Compota Thesaurarii, 1539-40. MSS, Reg. Ho., Edin.
  15. Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, pp. xviii., 98.
  16. Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, pp. Iv., 101; also Scots Acts, vol. iv., p. 84, c. 71.
  17. Atkinson, Discovery and Historie of the Gold Mynes in Scotland (Bannatyne Club, 1835), p. 47; also Cochran Patrick, Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. xxxvii.
  18. Cochran Patrick, Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. xliii.
  19. Williams, The Natural History of the Mineral Kingdom, vol. ii., 1810, p. 479.
  20. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. vii., 1793, p. 54.
  21. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. iv., 1792, p. 263.
  22. Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. xxxiv , and Acta Dominorium Auditorum, p. 6.
  23. Balcarras MS., Anelecta Scotica, First Series, pp. 91-94
  24. Hume Brown, Scotland in the Time of Queen Mary, 1904, p. 228.