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= BGS175: 175th Anniversary Science Symposium of the founding of the British Geological Survey, 28th September, Royal Institution, London =
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The British Geological Survey is the world's oldest national geological survey and commemorated its 175th anniversary in 2010.
 +
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The event was marked by a one-day science symposium on 28 September 2010.
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The symposium showcased our world-class science and technologies, demonstrating their relevance, societal benefits and positive impacts in addressing 21st century challenges; including living with environmental change, energy and natural resource security, rising CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and geohazards.
 +
 +
* Peak metal: Scarcity of supply or scare story?
 +
* Bronze Age Mediterraneans may have visited Stonehenge
 +
* Modelling of Icelandic volcanic ash particles
 +
 +
The event was attended by influential stakeholders including representatives from government, industry, academia, international geological surveys, students and the national media.
 +
 +
Guest speakers included Dr Marcia McNutt, and [https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/staff/iain-stewart Professor Iain Stewart].
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Britain's best-known natural history film-maker, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Attenborough Sir David Attenborough], featured in the panel discussion to close the symposium.
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About the British Geological Survey, 2010.
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== Win a place at BGS175 ==
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The winners of a VIP day at the science symposium, featuring Sir David Attenborough, are listed in the table below.
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{| class="wikitable"
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| Jonathan Wyatt, SHROPSHIRE || Paul Colinese, LONDON
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|-
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| John Williams, SURREY || Sophie Hibben, KENT
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|-
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| Lisa Allan, LONDON || Rob Flanders, CHESHIRE
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|-
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| Vince Piper, BUCKINGHAMSHIRE || Steven Cadman, SURREY
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|-
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| Sahja Haji, LONDON || Litsa Breingan, LONDON
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|-
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| Paul Dotteridge, HERTFORDSHIRE || Stephen Metheringham, BUCKINGHAMSHIRE
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|-
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| Milo Brook, OXFORDSHIRE || Catherine Unsworth, LONDON
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|}
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== About the day ==
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===Symposium agenda===
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Download the oral programme 200 KB pdf
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===Keynote speakers and special guests===
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{| class="wikitable"
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|-
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|'''Video presentation''': [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NstzDgR4fE About the British Geological Survey - 175 years of geoscience]||
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|-
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|Sir David Attenborough wrote and narrated BBC's [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snuna3fLYAg Uncovering Our Earliest Ancestor] ||[[File:Attenborough Thumb Copyright IanSalvage.jpg]]
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|-
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|Marcia McNutt, USGS Director, [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ISzUlINbB4o Introduction to The National Map]||[[File:Mcnutt USGS.jpg]]
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|-
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|Professor Iain Stewart in the BBC's [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kphF71S5F0Q How Earth Made Us]. Iain tells the epic story of how the planet has shaped our history.||[[File:Stewart plymouth.jpg]]
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|-
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|}
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== Presentations ==
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Insert Video: Panel session
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{| class="wikitable"
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|'''Morning session A'''||
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|-
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| Opening address || John Ludden, Executive Director, BGS
 +
|-
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| [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NstzDgR4fE About the BGS - 175 years of geoscience]||
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|-
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| Twenty-first century survey || Denis Peach, Chief Scientist, BGS
 +
|-
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| Acuity, accuracy and application: from systematic geological mapping to responsive 3D+ surveys || Martin Smith, Head Geology & Landscape, BGS
 +
|-
 +
| From watercolour to web || Keith Westhead, Head Knowledge Exchange, BGS
 +
|-
 +
| '''Keynote''': Facing tomorrow’s challenges with integrated science || Marcia McNutt, Director, USGS
 +
|-
 +
|'''Morning session B'''||
 +
|-
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| OneGeology: improving access to geoscience globally || Ian Jackson, Chief of Operations, BGS
 +
|-
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| North American liaisons || Garth Earls, Director, GSNI
 +
|-
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| Arabian adventures: geological mapping and climate change in Arabia || Andrew Farrant, Geologist, BGS
 +
|-
 +
| Groundwater animals: extending our understanding of biodiversity in the UK || Louise Maurice, Groundwater ecologist, BGS
 +
|-
 +
| Life just got complicated || Dr Phil Wilby, Geologist, BGS
 +
|-
 +
|'''Afternoon session A'''||
 +
|-
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| Predict or prepare: natural hazards and human disasters || David Kerridge, Head Earth Hazards & Systems, BGS
 +
|-
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| Groundwater, health and livelihoods in Africa || Alan MacDonald, Hydrogeologist, BGS
 +
|-
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| Marine exploration || Robert Gatliff, Head Marine Geoscience, BGS
 +
|-
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| Carbon capture and storage (CCS):demonstrating the concept || Andy Chadwick, Head CO2 Storage Research, BGS
 +
|-
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| Future energy: renewable energy dividends from our coal mining legacy || Diarmad Campbell, Chief Geologist, Scotland, BGS
 +
|-
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| Keynote: The human planet || Iain Stewart, Professor of Geosciences, Communication, University of Plymouth
 +
|-
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| '''Afternoon session B'''||
 +
|-
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| Malthus revisited? Population growth, environmental change and resource limits || Andrew Bloodworth, Head Minerals & Waste, BGS
 +
|-
 +
| Looking forward to making predictions: BGS’s role in the next decade and beyond. || Andrew Hughes, Hydrogeologist, BGS
 +
|-
 +
|'''Panel session'''||
 +
|-
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|Featuring: Sir David Attenborough, Marcia McNutt (Director, USGS) Iain Stewart (Chair), Randy Parrish (Head of NIGL), Kathryn Goodenough (Geologist, BGS), Mike Ellis (Head of Climate Science, BGS).||
 +
|-
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|'''Closing remarks'''||
 +
|-
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|Closing remarks by Jon Gluyas (BGS Board Chair), and BUFI poster prize presentation.||
 +
|}
 +
 +
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
{{NRW}}
 
{{NRW}}
  
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Ar y cyd â Howel Williams, cyhoeddodd [[Edward Greenly D.Sc.|Greenly]] ''Methods of Geological Surveying'' yn 1930 a’i hunangofiant ''A Hand through Time: Memories Romantic'' and ''Geological'' a ymddangosodd yn 1938. Bu farw ym Mangor yn 1951 ac yn briodol iawn fe’i claddwyd ym mynwent Llangristiolus, Ynys Môn. Mae ei fedd wedi’i gyfnodi’n Safle Geoamrywiaeth o Bwysigrwydd Rhanbarthol (RIGS).
 
Ar y cyd â Howel Williams, cyhoeddodd [[Edward Greenly D.Sc.|Greenly]] ''Methods of Geological Surveying'' yn 1930 a’i hunangofiant ''A Hand through Time: Memories Romantic'' and ''Geological'' a ymddangosodd yn 1938. Bu farw ym Mangor yn 1951 ac yn briodol iawn fe’i claddwyd ym mynwent Llangristiolus, Ynys Môn. Mae ei fedd wedi’i gyfnodi’n Safle Geoamrywiaeth o Bwysigrwydd Rhanbarthol (RIGS).
  
Lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland
 
  
The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland. Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. XVII
 
By G.V. Wilson. The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland. Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. XVII. Edinburgh: HMSO, 1921.
 
Bibliographic reference: Wilson, G.V.
 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Scotland.
 
Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. XVII.
 
The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland.
 
By G. V. Wilson, B.Sc. With contributions by John S. Flett, LL.D., F.R.S.
 
Published by order of The Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury.
 
Edinburgh: Printed Under The Authority of His Majesty's Stationery Office by Morrison & Gibb, Limited, Tanfield.
 
And to be purchased from E. Stanford, 12, 13 And 14 Long Acre, London; W. & A. K. Johnston, Limited, 2 St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh; Hodges, Figgis & Co., Limited, 104 Grafton Street, Dublin. From any Agent for the sale of Ordnance Survey Maps, or through any Bookseller, or from the Director-General, Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton. 1921. Price 7s. 6d. Net,
 
  
Preface
 
In Scotland the ores of lead and zinc have a wide distribution and have been worked for several centuries, though only on a small scale, except at Wanlockhead and Leadhills. Copper ores are less frequent, and nickel ores are found in only a few places. Mr. Wilson has collected information from a great variety of sources, and has personally inspected all the more important occurrences. The chapters on Caithness, Orkney and Shetland were contributed by me. It is very probable that many of the less important veins have escaped notice; but this Memoir contains a brief general account of the known mineral resources of Scotland in respect of lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores. We are indebted to many proprietors, factors, agents and mining engineers for assistance in compiling this handbook, and especially to the managers of Leadhills, Wanlockhead, Wood of Cree and Tyndrum Mines, who have given us every facility for examining their mines and records.
 
JOHN S: FLETT, Director.
 
Geological Survey Office,
 
28 Jermyn Street, London, S.W. 1, 8th September 1920.
 
Chapter 1 Lead and zinc ores
 
Introduction
 
Lead ores have a wide distribution in Scotland and, as (Plate 1) shows, veins occur in nearly every county. Many of these have been worked at one time or another, but for the most part only on a small scale and to no great depth, and little is now known of the quality of the ore produced. In many cases these old mines have fallen in, and their sites are now covered up and grassed over so that without reopening them it is impossible to form any reliable estimate of their value.
 
The principal districts in which lead mining has been actively carried on during the past century are: Strontian and Islay in Argyllshire, Tyndrum in Perthshire, Minnigaff in Kirkcudbrightshire (near Newton Stewart), Leadhills in Lanarkshire and Wanlockhead in Dumfriesshire. Of these, Leadhills and Wanlockhead have produced ore continuously during the whole period. Mining in the other districts named has been in abeyance for a considerable number of years, but owing to new conditions created by the war the old mines at Tyndrum and Newton Stewart are being reopened and trials have also been made on a new vein at Achanarras, in Caithness.
 
Historical notes
 
Metalliferous mining is an old industry in Scotland, and the mining of lead ores was probably carried on on a small scale at different centres at a very early period. The finding of bronze and stone implements<ref>  J. R. S. Hunter,  The Silurian Districts of Leadhills and Wanlockhead, Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, vol. vii., 1884, p. 376.</ref>  in some old surface workings at Leadhills and at Wanlockhead has led to the suggestion that these may date back to pre-Roman times. There is no evidence, however, that the Romans worked lead in Scotland, although a few pigs of Roman lead<ref>  Daniel Wilson,  Prehistoric Annals of Scotland," vol. ii., 1863, p. 64. </ref>  have occasionally been found. According to Pennant<ref>  Pennant,  A Tour of Scotland, vol. ii., 1790, p. 250.</ref> the mines of Islay may have been worked by the Norwegian invaders during their occupation of the country. Probably the earliest authentic record of lead raining refers to the Leadhills district, where in 1239<ref>  G. V. hying,  The Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, 1864, vol. i., p 50</ref>  a grant of lands and a lead mine was made to the monks of Newbattle by Sir David Lindsay, and lead ore was sent from there to Rutherglen in 1264.<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p.xxxiv.; also Compot. Camer. Scot. (Bannatyne Club), vol. i., p. 48.</ref>  Apparently the amount of lead ore raised in the country was not large, since in 1292 John Comyn,<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, , p. xxxiv.; also Stevenson, Historical Documents, Scotland, vol. i., p. 329.</ref> Earl of Buchan, got permission to import lead ore from the Isle of Man. Soon after this lead mines were working in West Argyllshire, and the accounts of the Constable of Tarbert<ref>  </ref> contain an entry of the payment of twelve pence for charcoal and labourers' wages for smelting lead ore. A lead mine was being worked on the confines of the parish of Glenorchy in Argyllshire in 1424, and it is interesting to note that it was declared a Royal Mine<ref>  The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. viii., 1793, p. 351.Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, pp. lx. and 2. Scots Acts, vol. ii., p. 5, c. 13.</ref> under a grant to the King by the Scottish Parliament of all lead mines which yielded more than 1½d. worth of silver to the pound of lead. Soon afterwards this mine was closed down and abandoned.
 
Up to about the sixteenth century<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.</ref> many of the mines seem to have been worked for silver principally, and the lead was often lost during cupellation. Before the end of that century the extraction of silver seems to have become unprofitable and the mines were worked for lead alone. This was often smelted on the spot in shallow hearths, and the silver neglected. In many cases the ore was exported, and the early grants of mines often gave permission to export beyond the seas<ref>  Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.; also Analecta Scotica, p. 20.</ref>  if through lack of fuel or other lawful occasion the ore could not be properly smelted at home.<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.; also Analecta Scotica, p. 85.</ref>  This export trade was carried on mainly through the Port of Leith,<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.; also Analecta Scotica, pp. 91-94.</ref> and between 1585 and 1590,<ref> Lesley, De origins, etc., Scotorum, 1675, p. 11.</ref>  15,717 "stones" of lead ore were shipped for foreign use.
 
The period from the latter part of the fifteenth to the beginning of the seventeenth century was one of great activity in mining and prospecting, due mainly to the discovery of the gold-bearing gravels of the Leadhills district.<ref> Cottonian MS. (Reprinted by J. R. S. Hunter), The Silurian Districts of Leadhills and Wanlockhead, Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, vol. vii., 1884, p. 388.</ref>  At one time as many as 300 men were employed here during the summer months, and gold to the value of £100,000 is said to have been collected in three years. The Treasurer's Accounts<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. a-v.; also Compota Thesaurarii, 1539-40. MSS, Reg. Ho., Edin.</ref> contain numerous entries of payments of gold, and also the interesting statement that some of it was used to form the Scottish Crown Regalia in 1542. The richer deposits soon became exhausted, and work ceased when the price of a man's labour exceeded 4d. per diem. During the whole of this period an active search for lead ore seems to have been kept up, and many of the Leadhills and Wanlockhead veins were discovered. In 1593<ref>  Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, pp. xviii., 98.</ref>  the Leadhills mines were in the hands of Thomas Foullis, who seems to have recognised that the gold-fields were unprofitable, and consequently to have concentrated his energies on the development of the lead mines. By 1597<ref>  Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, pp. Iv., 101; also Scots Acts, vol. iv., p. 84, c. 71.</ref>  the industry appears to have been in a thriving condition, and the Privy Council issued a proclamation to the effect that any one interfering with the carriers of lead should be severely punished, while the latter were authorised to wear a blazon of lead stamped with the Royal Arms and the private mark of the lessee of the mines.
 
In 1606 great excitement was caused by the discovery of the silver-lead mine at Hilderstone,<ref> Atkinson, Discovery and Historie of the Gold Mynes in Scotland (Bannatyne Club, 1835), p. 47; also Cochran Patrick, Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. xxxvii.</ref>  near Bathgate. According to report this mine was very productive for a short time and extravagant hopes were raised, but the richer portion soon became exhausted and the mine was abandoned as unprofitable.
 
A slump in mining enterprise seems to have set in-during the latter half of the seventeenth century, but interest revived with the discovery of the Alva silver mine in 1711<ref> Cochran Patrick, Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. xliii.</ref>  For a short time this mine was very profitable, and is said to have returned a monthly yield of £4000 worth of silver. Like Hilderstone it soon became exhausted, and was eventually abandoned. An active search for lead ore was in progress at this time, and resulted in the opening up of mines at Strontian in 1722, and at Tyndrum in 1739. In 1760 this search for lead brought about the discovery of the Glendinning antimony mine, near Langholm.<ref> Williams, The Natural History of the Mineral Kingdom, vol. ii., 1810, p. 479.</ref> The Black Craig Mine (Newton Stewart) was accidentally discovered in 1763,<ref> The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. vii., 1793, p. 54.</ref> and soon afterwards other veins were noticed in that district, one of copper ore being found by Leadhills miners on their way through to Blackcraig<ref> The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. iv., 1792, p. 263.</ref>
 
From this time to the end of the Napoleonic wars the lead industry appears to have been in an active state, and large quantities of ore were raised. After the signing of peace in 1815 the price of lead fell rapidly from £32 per ton in 1809 to £13 in 1829. Under these conditions several of the mines were closed down, but apparently only temporarily, as between 1840 and 1880 no less than twenty mines were worked for lead ore, including Woodhead, near Carsphairn, which was discovered in 1839. In the early days the ore was practically always smelted locally in shallow hearths, which were often placed in exposed positions so as to take advantage of the prevailing winds, and peat was generally used for fuel. Coal was first used for the purpose in Scotland at Wanlockhead in 1727, and the hearths of that period have by gradual improvements been developed into the present type of Scotch hearths. The Strontian furnaces were built about 1730, and those at Tyndrum in 1768-9.
 
Many of the small mines appear to have had furnaces of their own, but others apparently were never equipped with smelting appliances, and the ore was often transported either to Holland or to England. These early furnaces were very inefficient, and a large proportion of the lead was lost in the form of waste fumes. Latterly, by the addition of long condensing flues, much of this fume lead was saved. Straight flues, such as those to be seen at Woodhead, were first used, but it was subsequently found that by "zig-zagging" them a much larger proportion of lead could be recovered. Leadhills and Wanlockhead were fitted with this type, but the former were abandoned about 1890, and since that time the Wanlockhead furnaces, together with some in Glasgow, have been the only ones working in Scotland.
 
The working of zinc ores is a small and recent development of Scottish mining, but a large extraction plant for treating imported ores has recently been erected at Irvine, on the Ayrshire coast.
 
Statistics
 
Output of lead ore
 
Few records exist as to the early output of the mines. We find, however, that in 1466, James Lord Hamilton<ref>  Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. xxxiv , and Acta Dominorium Auditorum, p. 6.</ref>  was summoned by the Abbot of Newbattle for removing 1000 " stones" of lead ore from Friar's Moor (Leadhills district), but no information is given as to the time taken to raise the ore. Between 1585 and 1590, 15,717 " stones " of lead were exported from the country,<ref> Balcarras MS., Anelecta Scotica, First Series, pp. 91-94</ref>  and papers in the Mar and Kellie charter chest<ref>  Hume Brown, Scotland in the Time of Queen Mary, 1904, p. 228.</ref>  give the amount exported in 1614 as 30,000 "stones," which was valued at £20,000 Scots. The old records of the Tyndruni. Mines show that 5017 tons of lead were raised there between 1741 and 1768. The Strontian mines seem at one time to have yielded about 400 tons of lead per annum, and Wanlockhead and Leadhills may be said to have each produced an average of 1000 tons of lead per annum for the last 120 years. Definite figures of output exist since 1852, and the following tables, taken from the Mining Statistics issued by the Geological Survey and from the Home Office Reports, give the total output and other information concerning all mines worked from that time to the present day.
 
Output of lead from Scottish mines during the period 1850-1920
 
  
[[Category:Welsh geologists]]
 
  
[[Category:Pioneers of the British Geological Survey]]
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= Geologists' Association excursions - list by date =

Revision as of 22:01, 24 January 2022

BGS175: 175th Anniversary Science Symposium of the founding of the British Geological Survey, 28th September, Royal Institution, London

The British Geological Survey is the world's oldest national geological survey and commemorated its 175th anniversary in 2010.

The event was marked by a one-day science symposium on 28 September 2010.

The symposium showcased our world-class science and technologies, demonstrating their relevance, societal benefits and positive impacts in addressing 21st century challenges; including living with environmental change, energy and natural resource security, rising CO2 emissions and geohazards.

  • Peak metal: Scarcity of supply or scare story?
  • Bronze Age Mediterraneans may have visited Stonehenge
  • Modelling of Icelandic volcanic ash particles

The event was attended by influential stakeholders including representatives from government, industry, academia, international geological surveys, students and the national media.

Guest speakers included Dr Marcia McNutt, and Professor Iain Stewart.

Britain's best-known natural history film-maker, Sir David Attenborough, featured in the panel discussion to close the symposium.

About the British Geological Survey, 2010.

Win a place at BGS175

The winners of a VIP day at the science symposium, featuring Sir David Attenborough, are listed in the table below.

Jonathan Wyatt, SHROPSHIRE Paul Colinese, LONDON
John Williams, SURREY Sophie Hibben, KENT
Lisa Allan, LONDON Rob Flanders, CHESHIRE
Vince Piper, BUCKINGHAMSHIRE Steven Cadman, SURREY
Sahja Haji, LONDON Litsa Breingan, LONDON
Paul Dotteridge, HERTFORDSHIRE Stephen Metheringham, BUCKINGHAMSHIRE
Milo Brook, OXFORDSHIRE Catherine Unsworth, LONDON

About the day

Symposium agenda

Download the oral programme 200 KB pdf

Keynote speakers and special guests

Video presentation: About the British Geological Survey - 175 years of geoscience
Sir David Attenborough wrote and narrated BBC's Uncovering Our Earliest Ancestor Attenborough Thumb Copyright IanSalvage.jpg
Marcia McNutt, USGS Director, Introduction to The National Map Mcnutt USGS.jpg
Professor Iain Stewart in the BBC's How Earth Made Us. Iain tells the epic story of how the planet has shaped our history. Stewart plymouth.jpg

Presentations

Insert Video: Panel session

Morning session A
Opening address John Ludden, Executive Director, BGS
About the BGS - 175 years of geoscience
Twenty-first century survey Denis Peach, Chief Scientist, BGS
Acuity, accuracy and application: from systematic geological mapping to responsive 3D+ surveys Martin Smith, Head Geology & Landscape, BGS
From watercolour to web Keith Westhead, Head Knowledge Exchange, BGS
Keynote: Facing tomorrow’s challenges with integrated science Marcia McNutt, Director, USGS
Morning session B
OneGeology: improving access to geoscience globally Ian Jackson, Chief of Operations, BGS
North American liaisons Garth Earls, Director, GSNI
Arabian adventures: geological mapping and climate change in Arabia Andrew Farrant, Geologist, BGS
Groundwater animals: extending our understanding of biodiversity in the UK Louise Maurice, Groundwater ecologist, BGS
Life just got complicated Dr Phil Wilby, Geologist, BGS
Afternoon session A
Predict or prepare: natural hazards and human disasters David Kerridge, Head Earth Hazards & Systems, BGS
Groundwater, health and livelihoods in Africa Alan MacDonald, Hydrogeologist, BGS
Marine exploration Robert Gatliff, Head Marine Geoscience, BGS
Carbon capture and storage (CCS):demonstrating the concept Andy Chadwick, Head CO2 Storage Research, BGS
Future energy: renewable energy dividends from our coal mining legacy Diarmad Campbell, Chief Geologist, Scotland, BGS
Keynote: The human planet Iain Stewart, Professor of Geosciences, Communication, University of Plymouth
Afternoon session B
Malthus revisited? Population growth, environmental change and resource limits Andrew Bloodworth, Head Minerals & Waste, BGS
Looking forward to making predictions: BGS’s role in the next decade and beyond. Andrew Hughes, Hydrogeologist, BGS
Panel session
Featuring: Sir David Attenborough, Marcia McNutt (Director, USGS) Iain Stewart (Chair), Randy Parrish (Head of NIGL), Kathryn Goodenough (Geologist, BGS), Mike Ellis (Head of Climate Science, BGS).
Closing remarks
Closing remarks by Jon Gluyas (BGS Board Chair), and BUFI poster prize presentation.

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© Natural Resources Wales. All rights reserved. For use contact: Natural Resources Wales
Edward Greenly

Edward Greenly (1861–1951)

Cofir am Edward Greenly yn bennaf am ei arolwg daearegol o Ynys Môn, gwaith y bu wrthi am bron pum mlynedd ar hugain o’i fywyd.

Image caption: Edward Greenly. Llun trwy garedigrwydd Terry Williams

Edward Greenly (1861–1951)

Campwaith pennaf Edward Greenly oedd cwblhau arolwg daearegol manwl o Ynys Môn. Cyhoeddwyd The Geology of Anglesey (Volume 1 and Volume 2) mewn dwy gyfrol yn 1919 ac yna yn 1920 fap daearegol ar y raddfa un fodfedd i’r filltir. Er bod rhannau o’r gwaith wedi’u diweddaru yn ystod y degawdau dilynol, erys ei astudiaeth yn glasur o fri rhyngwladol.

Mapio Môn

Wrth fapio ynys Môn, gwnaeth Greenly ddefnydd mawr o syniadau tectonig a ddatblygodd wrth iddo fynd i’r afael â gwaith maes cynharach yn Ucheldiroedd yr Alban. Roedd tair prif broblem yn ei wynebu: prinder brigiadau da, yn enwedig mewn ardaloedd mewndirol allweddol bwysig; presenoldeb creigiau gorchuddiol clytiog yn cuddio yn aml y baslawr Cyn-Gambriaidd hŷn; a phresenoldeb toriadau tectonig megis ffawtiau a chylchfaoedd croesrym a oedd yn aml yn rhwystro’r gwaith o gydberthyn gwahanol ddilyniannau o greigiau. Chwaraeodd ei wraig Annie Greenly (Barnard gynt), a oedd yn rhannu ei ddiddordeb mewn daeareg a diwinyddiaeth, rôl hollbwysig drwy baratoi’r mynegai i’w gyfrol.

Ganed Greenly ym Mryste ac fe’i haddysgwyd yng Ngholeg Clifton. Bu’n fyfyriwr yng Ngholeg y Brifysgol, Llundain, cyn ymuno â’r Arolwg Daearegol yn 1889. Yn gyntaf, bu gofyn iddo baratoi arolwg o Ucheldiroedd gogledd-orllewin yr Alban. Daeth yn ffrind agos ac yn gydweithiwr i Ben Peach yr oedd ei archwiliadau wedi bod yn gyfrwng i ddatrys adeiledd cymhleth yr Alban (gan gynnwys adnabod a sylweddoli arwyddocâd Gwthiad Moine). Rhoddodd Greenly y gorau i’w waith gyda’r Arolwg yn 1895 er mwyn iddo, o’i ben a’i bastwn ei hun. roi cychwyn ar ei arolwg o Ynys Môn.

Cyfraniadau pwysig i ddaeareg

Yn gydnabyddiaeth am ei gyfraniadau pwysig i ddaeareg, cafodd Edward Greenly ei dderbyn yn aelod er anrhydedd o gymdeithasau daearegol Caeredin a Lerpwl, a Chymdeithas Hynafiaethwyr Môn. Dyfarnwyd iddo Fedal Lyell, fawr ei bri, y Gymdeithas Ddaearegol yn 1920, medal Cymdeithas Ddaearegol Lerpwl yn 1933 a doethuriaeth er anrhydedd Prifysgol Cymru yn 1920.

Ar y cyd â Howel Williams, cyhoeddodd Greenly Methods of Geological Surveying yn 1930 a’i hunangofiant A Hand through Time: Memories Romantic and Geological a ymddangosodd yn 1938. Bu farw ym Mangor yn 1951 ac yn briodol iawn fe’i claddwyd ym mynwent Llangristiolus, Ynys Môn. Mae ei fedd wedi’i gyfnodi’n Safle Geoamrywiaeth o Bwysigrwydd Rhanbarthol (RIGS).





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Geologists' Association excursions - list by date