Editing Westphalian mid-A to mid-C depositional controls, UK Pennine Basin: regional analyses and their relevance to southern North Sea interpretations

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== Westphalian mid-A to mid-C depositional controls, UK Pennine Basin: regional analyses and their relevance to southern North Sea interpretations ==
 
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== Westphalian mid-A to mid-C depositional controls, UK Pennine Basin: regional analyses and their relevance to southern North Sea interpretations ==
 
  
 
[[File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_01.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 1 Tectonic framework of the main UK onshore Upper Carboniferous coalfields (based on Rippon 1997).]]
 
[[File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_01.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 1 Tectonic framework of the main UK onshore Upper Carboniferous coalfields (based on Rippon 1997).]]
 
[[File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_02.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 2 Stratigraphical summary of the UK coal-bearing Westphalian A–C (based on Guion et al. 1995b). Phases 1 to 5 are detailed in Section 1 of the text.]]
 
[[File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_02.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 2 Stratigraphical summary of the UK coal-bearing Westphalian A–C (based on Guion et al. 1995b). Phases 1 to 5 are detailed in Section 1 of the text.]]
[[File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_03.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 3 Variations in mid-Westphalian A to top Westphalian B palaeo-environments, north–south through eastings 450–460.  
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[[File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_03.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 3 Variations in mid-Westphalian A to top Westphalian B palaeo-environments, north–south through eastings 450–460. The vertical axis is the geological succession normalized for regional thickness variations to give a time-equivalent display (see main text): therefore, there is no vertical exaggeration. The horizontal axis is a north–south section through the succession; see Figure 5 for location. The suppression of actual thickness variations allows a more ready assessment of the spatial variations in time-equivalent environments. Note: the unions of coals towards an inferred basin margin northwest of York; the importance of the Top Hard seam group; the general lateral continuity of the named coals; and the persistence of channel belts, evidenced by significant fluvial sandstones, throughout most of the succession. All the named seams are considered to demonstrate some base-level control on their stratigraphical incidence, although their detailed thickness variations and coal types will reflect local control, such as the presence of preceding topographic highs.
 
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[[File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_04.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 4 Variations in mid-Westphalian A to top Westphalian B palaeo-environments, north to south through eastings 470– 480. As for [[:File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]], the vertical axis is the geological succession normalized for regional thickness variations to give a timeequivalent display (see main text); the horizontal axis is a north–south section through the succession; see [[:File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_05.jpg|Figure 5]] for location. Again, the suppression of actual thickness variations allows a more ready assessment of the spatial variations in timeequivalent environments. Note: the unions of coals towards the basin margin southeast of Nottingham; basin-marginal areas where late Westphalian B marine strata occupy a specific condensed succession; the general lateral continuity of the named coals; and the persistence of channel belts, evidenced by significant fluvial sandstones throughout most of the succession. See also the caption for [[:File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]].]]
 
[[File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_04.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 4 Variations in mid-Westphalian A to top Westphalian B palaeo-environments, north to south through eastings 470– 480. As for [[:File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]], the vertical axis is the geological succession normalized for regional thickness variations to give a timeequivalent display (see main text); the horizontal axis is a north–south section through the succession; see [[:File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_05.jpg|Figure 5]] for location. Again, the suppression of actual thickness variations allows a more ready assessment of the spatial variations in timeequivalent environments. Note: the unions of coals towards the basin margin southeast of Nottingham; basin-marginal areas where late Westphalian B marine strata occupy a specific condensed succession; the general lateral continuity of the named coals; and the persistence of channel belts, evidenced by significant fluvial sandstones throughout most of the succession. See also the caption for [[:File:YGS_CHR_07_WEST_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]].]]
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The Westphalian mid-A to mid-C Coal Measures of the eastern part of the Pennine Basin are very well documented and also serve as useful analogues for stratigraphically equivalent successions in the North Sea. However, there are still conflicting interpretations of the onshore successions, mainly regarding the application of sequence stratigraphy. Sequence stratigraphical interpretation is not straightforward, particularly as major sandbodies occupy nearly all stratigraphical intervals; thus, potential sequence boundaries, defined by erosion surfaces at the bases of channel belts, could lie at virtually all horizons. Sandstone thicknesses and connectivities relate mainly to their location within the evolving basin. Coal and mudstone thicknesses and connectivities are also mainly related to basin location, although the stratigraphical distribution (and some thicknesses) of coal seams indicate control by marine base level. The paper also considers the validity of interpretations relevant to North Sea hydrocarbon fields. The onshore conclusions are derived from study of an extensive dataset across varied basin settings; the more restricted spatial and stratigraphical scope of offshore data significantly limits the interpretation of depositional relationships and trends. The paper’s main conclusions relate to investigative scales, to the achievable inter-basin correlation resolution, to the 3 D connectivity and thickness patterns of coals, mudstones and sandstones (reflecting specific basin subsidence), and to more robust sequence stratigraphical interpretations.
 
The Westphalian mid-A to mid-C Coal Measures of the eastern part of the Pennine Basin are very well documented and also serve as useful analogues for stratigraphically equivalent successions in the North Sea. However, there are still conflicting interpretations of the onshore successions, mainly regarding the application of sequence stratigraphy. Sequence stratigraphical interpretation is not straightforward, particularly as major sandbodies occupy nearly all stratigraphical intervals; thus, potential sequence boundaries, defined by erosion surfaces at the bases of channel belts, could lie at virtually all horizons. Sandstone thicknesses and connectivities relate mainly to their location within the evolving basin. Coal and mudstone thicknesses and connectivities are also mainly related to basin location, although the stratigraphical distribution (and some thicknesses) of coal seams indicate control by marine base level. The paper also considers the validity of interpretations relevant to North Sea hydrocarbon fields. The onshore conclusions are derived from study of an extensive dataset across varied basin settings; the more restricted spatial and stratigraphical scope of offshore data significantly limits the interpretation of depositional relationships and trends. The paper’s main conclusions relate to investigative scales, to the achievable inter-basin correlation resolution, to the 3 D connectivity and thickness patterns of coals, mudstones and sandstones (reflecting specific basin subsidence), and to more robust sequence stratigraphical interpretations.
  
== Introduction ==
 
 
The Westphalian mid-A to mid-C Coal Measures of the eastern part of the Pennine Basin are very well documented, following intensive mining and exploration, and there is an extensive literature. The main aim of the paper is to consider basinwide relationships that can be substantiated from the detail, and then to evaluate their application to other depositional areas, including southern North Sea gas fields. The paper discusses regional correlation and controls on sedimentation for the Pennine and other onshore basins, and attempts to discuss the succession in a sequence stratigraphical context.
 
The Westphalian mid-A to mid-C Coal Measures of the eastern part of the Pennine Basin are very well documented, following intensive mining and exploration, and there is an extensive literature. The main aim of the paper is to consider basinwide relationships that can be substantiated from the detail, and then to evaluate their application to other depositional areas, including southern North Sea gas fields. The paper discusses regional correlation and controls on sedimentation for the Pennine and other onshore basins, and attempts to discuss the succession in a sequence stratigraphical context.
  
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Guion, P. D. & C. R. Fielding 1988. Westphalian A and B sedimentation in the Pennine Basin, UK. In ''Sedimentation in a synorogenic basin complex: the Upper Carboniferous of northwest Europe'', B. M. Besly & G. Kelling (eds), 153–77. Glasgow: Blackie.
 
Guion, P. D. & C. R. Fielding 1988. Westphalian A and B sedimentation in the Pennine Basin, UK. In ''Sedimentation in a synorogenic basin complex: the Upper Carboniferous of northwest Europe'', B. M. Besly & G. Kelling (eds), 153–77. Glasgow: Blackie.
  
Guion, P. D., I. M. Fulton, N. S. Jones 1995a. Sedimentary facies of the coal-bearing Westphalian A and B north of the Wales–Brabant High. In ''European coal geology'', M. K. G. Whateley & D. A. Spears (eds), 45–78. Special Publication 82, Geological Society, London.  
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Guion, P. D., I. M. Fulton, N. S. Jones 1995a. Sedimentary facies of the coal-bearing Westphalian A and B north of the Wales–Brabant High. In ''European coal geology'', M. K. G. Whateley & D. A. Spears (eds), 45–78. Special Publication 82, Geological Society, London. Guion, P. D., N. L. Banks, J. H. Rippon 1995b. The Silkstone Rock (Westphalian) from the east Pennines, England: implications for sand body genesis. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''152, 819–32.
 
 
Guion, P. D., N. L. Banks, J. H. Rippon 1995b. The Silkstone Rock (Westphalian) from the east Pennines, England: implications for sand body genesis. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''152, 819–32.
 
  
 
Hallsworth, C. R. & J. I. Chisholm 2000. Stratigraphic evolution of provenance characteristics in Westphalian sandstones of the Yorkshire coalfield. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''53, 43– 72.
 
Hallsworth, C. R. & J. I. Chisholm 2000. Stratigraphic evolution of provenance characteristics in Westphalian sandstones of the Yorkshire coalfield. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''53, 43– 72.
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Ritchie, J. S., D. Pilling, S. Hayes 1998. Reservoir development, sequence stratigraphy and geological modelling of Westphalian fluvial reservoirs of the Caister C field, UK southern North Sea. ''Petroleum Geoscience ''4, 203–211.
 
Ritchie, J. S., D. Pilling, S. Hayes 1998. Reservoir development, sequence stratigraphy and geological modelling of Westphalian fluvial reservoirs of the Caister C field, UK southern North Sea. ''Petroleum Geoscience ''4, 203–211.
 
[[category:Carboniferous hydrocarbon resources: the southern North Sea and surrounding onshore areas ]]
 

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