Editing Yorkshire rocks and landscape: a field guide

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[[Lower and Middle Jurassic rocks between Robin Hood's Bay and Hawsker Bottoms - an excursion|18 Lower and Middle Jurassic rocks between Robin Hood's Bay and Hawsker Bottoms John Senior]]
 
[[Lower and Middle Jurassic rocks between Robin Hood's Bay and Hawsker Bottoms - an excursion|18 Lower and Middle Jurassic rocks between Robin Hood's Bay and Hawsker Bottoms John Senior]]
  
[[Middle–Upper Jurassic sequence between Cayton Bay and Yons Nab - an excursion|19 The Middle–Upper Jurassic sequence between Cayton Bay and Yons Nab Martin Whyte and Mike Romano]]
+
[[Middle–Upper Jurassic sequence between Layton Bay and Yons Nab - an excursion|19 The Middle–Upper Jurassic sequence between Layton Bay and Yons Nab Martin Whyte and Mike Romano]]
  
 
[[Jurassic, Cretaceous and Quaternary rocks of Filey Bay and Speeton - an excursion|20 Jurassic, Cretaceous and Quaternary rocks of Filey Bay and Speeton John Neale and John Catt]]
 
[[Jurassic, Cretaceous and Quaternary rocks of Filey Bay and Speeton - an excursion|20 Jurassic, Cretaceous and Quaternary rocks of Filey Bay and Speeton John Neale and John Catt]]
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'''cyclothem '''A sequence of beds, repeated again and again in vertical succession. Particularly notable in the Carboniferous.
 
'''cyclothem '''A sequence of beds, repeated again and again in vertical succession. Particularly notable in the Carboniferous.
  
'''dating, radiometric '''Rocks are dated by using the fixed rate of decay of parent isotopes of various radioactive elements to daughter products. The resulting age may be quoted with the parent isotope used, as in 'cC yrs', etc.
+
'''dating, radiometric '''Rocks are dated by using the fixed rate of decay of parent isotopes of various radioactive elements to daughter products. The resulting age may be quoted with the parent isotope used, as in '<sup>14</sup>C yrs', etc.
  
 
'''diagenesis '''The changes that take place in the conversion of a sediment to a rock.
 
'''diagenesis '''The changes that take place in the conversion of a sediment to a rock.
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'''hanging wall '''''See '''''fault.'''
 
'''hanging wall '''''See '''''fault.'''
  
'''hemimorphite '''(calamine) Zn<sub>4</sub>(Si<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub>)(OH)<sub>2</sub>.H<sub>2</sub>O White, grey, green-brown or pale blue ore ofzinc, small tabular crystals but normally radial or earthy masses.
+
'''hemimorphite '''(calamine) Zn 4(Si<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub>) (OH)2.H<sub>2</sub>O White, grey, green-brown or pale blue ore ofzinc, small tabular crystals but normally radial or earthy masses.
  
 
'''hummocky cross-stratification '''''See '''''cross-stratification.'''
 
'''hummocky cross-stratification '''''See '''''cross-stratification.'''
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'''igneous '''Rocks crystallized or solidified from a molten state.
 
'''igneous '''Rocks crystallized or solidified from a molten state.
  
'''inlier '''Area of older rocks surrounded by younger rocks.
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'''inlier '''Area ofolder rocks surrounded by younger rocks.
  
 
'''intermontane basin '''Sedimentary basin being infilled from erosion of surrounding mountains.
 
'''intermontane basin '''Sedimentary basin being infilled from erosion of surrounding mountains.
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'''interstadial '''A period of increased warmth or retreating ice between '''stadials.'''
 
'''interstadial '''A period of increased warmth or retreating ice between '''stadials.'''
  
'''intraclast '''Carbonate fragment derived from the erosion of a nearby sediment and redeposited within the same area.
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'''intraclast '''Carbonate fragment derived from the erosion 01 a nearby sediment and redeposited within the same area.
  
 
'''joint '''Fracture in rock, usually occurring in more or less regularly spaced sets, along which little or no movement can be detected.
 
'''joint '''Fracture in rock, usually occurring in more or less regularly spaced sets, along which little or no movement can be detected.
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'''kame '''Steep-sided mound of bedded glaciofluvial sand and gravel associated with stagnant ice. A '''kame terrace '''is a continuous linear feature formed between an ice mass and a valley wall. Subsequent ice melt may result in signs of marginal slumping.
 
'''kame '''Steep-sided mound of bedded glaciofluvial sand and gravel associated with stagnant ice. A '''kame terrace '''is a continuous linear feature formed between an ice mass and a valley wall. Subsequent ice melt may result in signs of marginal slumping.
  
'''kettle hole '''Depression in glacial drift, possibly containing a lake, left by the melting of an included mass of ice.
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'''kettle hole '''Depression in glacial drift, possibly containing a lake, left by the melting of an included mass ofice.
  
 
'''lacustrine '''Sediments or processes associated with lakes.
 
'''lacustrine '''Sediments or processes associated with lakes.
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'''laterite '''Crust of mainly hydrated iron and aluminium silicates produced by the weathering of certain rocks in tropical, humid conditions.
 
'''laterite '''Crust of mainly hydrated iron and aluminium silicates produced by the weathering of certain rocks in tropical, humid conditions.
  
'''limonite '''FeO(OH).''n''H<sub>2</sub>O Yellowish-brown earthy mineral derived from the weathering of iron minerals in rocks.
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'''limonite '''FeO (OH).nH<sub>2</sub>O Yellowish-brown earthy mineral derived from the weathering of iron minerals in rocks.
  
'''lithology '''Physical features of a rock. Hence '''lithostratigraphy, '''the stratigraphic ordering of different rock types.
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'''lithology '''Physical features ofa rock. Hence '''lithostratigraphy, '''the stratigraphic ordering ofdifferent rock types.
  
 
'''loess '''Unconsolidated, wind-deposited, mainly silt-grade sediment.
 
'''loess '''Unconsolidated, wind-deposited, mainly silt-grade sediment.
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'''mesothem '''An approximately 5 '''Ma '''cycle of '''eustatic '''rise and fall of sea level. In the Carboniferous, many '''cyclothems '''may form sequentially within a mesothem.
 
'''mesothem '''An approximately 5 '''Ma '''cycle of '''eustatic '''rise and fall of sea level. In the Carboniferous, many '''cyclothems '''may form sequentially within a mesothem.
  
'''metamorphic '''Rock formed by the alteration of a pre-existing rock by changes in temperature and/or pressure.
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'''metamorphic '''Rock formed by the alteration ofa pre-existing rock by changes in temperature and/or pressure.
  
'''mica '''One of a group of silicate minerals characterized by a platy habit.
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'''mica '''One ofa group of silicate minerals characterized by a platy habit.
  
'''microfossil '''Any fossil too small to be studied without a microscope.  
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'''microfossil '''Any fossil too small to be studied without a microscope. '''mineral veins '''''See '''''veins.'''
 
 
'''mineral veins '''''See '''''veins.'''
 
  
 
'''mollusc '''One of a very diverse invertebrate group including the '''bivalves, gastropods, '''cephalopods '''(ammonites, goniatites, belemnites '''and '''orthocones) '''and '''scaphopods.'''
 
'''mollusc '''One of a very diverse invertebrate group including the '''bivalves, gastropods, '''cephalopods '''(ammonites, goniatites, belemnites '''and '''orthocones) '''and '''scaphopods.'''
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'''moraine '''An unsorted deposit of rock debris associated with the actions of a glacier.
 
'''moraine '''An unsorted deposit of rock debris associated with the actions of a glacier.
  
'''nannofossil '''Extremely small fossil derived from nannoplankton, generally less than 0.05&nbsp;mm in size, for example a '''coccolith.'''
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'''nannofossil '''Extremely small fossil derived from nannoplankton, generally less than 0.05 mm in size, for example a '''coccolith.'''
  
 
'''non-sequence '''Any (usually) minor break in the rock sequence.
 
'''non-sequence '''Any (usually) minor break in the rock sequence.
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'''nunatak '''Rocky summit standing above a surrounding ice sheet during glaciation.
 
'''nunatak '''Rocky summit standing above a surrounding ice sheet during glaciation.
  
'''oncolite '''Spherical or sub-spherical particle, up to 50&nbsp;mm in diameter, formed by the action of algae in trapping sediment on the surface of a mobile grain.
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'''oncolite '''Spherical or sub-spherical particle, up to 5o mm in diameter, formed by the action ofalgae in trapping sediment on the surface ofa mobile grain.
  
 
'''onlap '''''See '''''overlap.'''
 
'''onlap '''''See '''''overlap.'''
  
'''ooid (oolith) '''Spherical to sub-spherical particle, less than 2&nbsp;mm in diameter, formed by the concentric deposition of rings of (usually) calcium carbonate around a mobile grain.
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'''ooid (oolith) '''Spherical to sub-spherical particle, less than 2 mm in diameter, formed by the concentric deposition of rings of (usually) calcium carbonate around a mobile grain.
  
 
'''oolite '''Rock formed largely of '''ooids. '''Characteristic of high-energy, shallow-water environments.
 
'''oolite '''Rock formed largely of '''ooids. '''Characteristic of high-energy, shallow-water environments.
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'''selenite '''''See '''''gypsum.'''
 
'''selenite '''''See '''''gypsum.'''
  
'''septarian '''Nodules or concretions with a series of internal mineral-filled (usually '''calcite''') cracks.
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'''septarian '''Nodules or concretions with a series ofinternal mineral-filled (usually '''calcite) '''cracks.
  
 
'''siderite '''FeCO<sub>3</sub> Grey to grey-brown mineral widespread in certain sedimentary rocks, particularly sedimentary ironstone deposits and Coal Measures sequences.
 
'''siderite '''FeCO<sub>3</sub> Grey to grey-brown mineral widespread in certain sedimentary rocks, particularly sedimentary ironstone deposits and Coal Measures sequences.
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'''sole structure '''Sedimentary structure cut into an underlying mudstone by a turbidity current and infilled by the overlying '''turbidite '''bed. Preserved as a cast on the base of the turbidite. '''Flute cast (mark): '''ovoid scoop-shaped structure caused by turbulent water flow, preserved as a lobe on the base of the turbidite.
 
'''sole structure '''Sedimentary structure cut into an underlying mudstone by a turbidity current and infilled by the overlying '''turbidite '''bed. Preserved as a cast on the base of the turbidite. '''Flute cast (mark): '''ovoid scoop-shaped structure caused by turbulent water flow, preserved as a lobe on the base of the turbidite.
  
'''solifluction '''Downhill movement of surface layer of unconsolidated weathered material when saturated by water.
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'''solifluction '''Downhill movement ofsurface layer ofunconsolidated weathered material when saturated by water.
 
 
'''sphalerite (blende) '''ZnS Commonly a brown or black mineral with a resinous lustre and variable form. Most common ore for zinc.
 
 
 
'''spillway '''General term for '''meltwater '''or '''overflow channels.'''
 
  
'''sponge '''Primitive invertebrates with an often asymmetrical body supported by spongin and/or siliceous or calcareous spicules.  
+
'''sphalerite (blende) '''ZnS Commonly a brown or black mineral with a resinous lustre and variable form. Most common ore for zinc. '''spillway '''General term for '''meltwater '''or '''overflow channels.'''
  
'''S.S.S.I'''. Site of Special Scientific Interest.
+
'''sponge '''Primitive invertebrates with an often asymmetrical body supported by spongin and/or siliceous or calcareous spicules. S.S.S.I. Site of Special Scientific Interest.
  
'''stadial''' A period of increased cold or advancing ice.
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'''stadial A '''period ofincreased cold or advancing ice.
  
'''strike '''Intersection of a bedding plane, or other planar surface, with the horizontal.
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'''strike '''Intersection ofa bedding plane, or other planar surface, with the horizontal.
  
 
'''strike-slip '''''See '''''fault.'''
 
'''strike-slip '''''See '''''fault.'''
  
'''stromatolite''' A carbonate rock with a fine horizontal, domal or columnar banding, reflecting the control of deposition by an '''algal '''mat or microbial community living on the surface of the sediment.
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'''stromatolite A '''carbonate rock with a fine horizontal, domal or columnar banding, reflecting the control of deposition by an '''algal '''mat or microbial community living on the surface of the sediment.
  
'''strontionite '''SrCO<sub>3</sub> White to pale green, grey or pale yellow mineral, usually with prismatic or needle-like crystals.
+
'''strontionite '''SI.0 03 White to pale green, grey or pale yellow mineral, usually with prismatic or needle-like crystals.
  
 
'''stylolite '''An irregular, suture-like contact, most common in limestones, produced by solution of the rock under high pressure.
 
'''stylolite '''An irregular, suture-like contact, most common in limestones, produced by solution of the rock under high pressure.
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'''tectonic '''Caused by deformation of rock masses, as in mountain-building episodes.
 
'''tectonic '''Caused by deformation of rock masses, as in mountain-building episodes.
  
'''tholeiitic basalt''' A type of '''basalt '''oversaturated in silica, so that small amounts of '''quartz '''are present.
+
'''tholeiitic basalt A '''type of '''basalt '''oversaturated in silica, so that small amounts of '''quartz '''are present.
  
'''throw '''Description of vertical component of movement on a '''fault '''plane. '''Downthrow '''emphasises the relative downward displacement ofa block on one side of the fault, '''upthrow '''(less commonly used) emphasizes the relative upward displacement of a block.
+
'''throw '''Description of vertical component of movement on a '''fault '''plane. '''Downthrow '''emphasises the relative downward displacement ofa block on one side of the fault, '''upthrow '''(less commonly used) emphasizes the relative upward displacement ofa block.
  
 
'''thrust '''''See '''''fault.'''
 
'''thrust '''''See '''''fault.'''
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'''till '''(boulder clay) Collective term for the group of unsorted sediments laid down by direct action of ice.
 
'''till '''(boulder clay) Collective term for the group of unsorted sediments laid down by direct action of ice.
  
'''trace fossil''' A structure, such as a burrow or a grazing trail, resulting from the activity of an animal.
+
'''trace fossil A '''structure, such as a burrow or a grazing trail, resulting from the activity of an animal.
  
 
'''transgression '''An advance of the sea over the land, caused by a relative rise in sea level.
 
'''transgression '''An advance of the sea over the land, caused by a relative rise in sea level.
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'''Variscan Orogeny '''''See '''''orogeny.'''
 
'''Variscan Orogeny '''''See '''''orogeny.'''
  
'''vein''' A fracture, usually sub-vertical, which is mineralized, often with '''quartz '''or '''calcite. A mineral vein '''implies the presence of ore minerals.
+
'''vein A '''fracture, usually sub-vertical, which is mineralized, often with '''quartz '''or '''calcite. A mineral vein '''implies the presence of ore minerals.
  
 
'''witherite '''BaCO<sub>3</sub> A white or grey mineral, crystals six-sided prisms and pyramids. Notably heavy.
 
'''witherite '''BaCO<sub>3</sub> A white or grey mineral, crystals six-sided prisms and pyramids. Notably heavy.
  
'''Yoredale '''Name applied to repeat cycles of limestone-shale-sandstone(-seatearth-coal) '''(cyclothems) '''in the Carboniferous (Dinantian, early Namurian), derived from the old name for Wensleydale, where they are typically developed.
+
'''Yoredale '''Name applied to repeat cycles oflimes tone-shalesandstone(-seatearth-coal) '''(cyclothems) '''in the Carboniferous (Dinantian, early Namurian), derived from the old name for Wensleydale, where they are typically developed.
  
 
== Bibliography ==
 
== Bibliography ==
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Kent, P. E. 1980. ''Eastern England from the Tees to The Wash. ''British Regional Geology. 2nd edn, vii+155pp. HMSO, London.
 
Kent, P. E. 1980. ''Eastern England from the Tees to The Wash. ''British Regional Geology. 2nd edn, vii+155pp. HMSO, London.
  
Rawson, P. F. and Wright, J. K. (eds) 1992. ''The Yorkshire Coast.'' Geologists' Association Guide No.34. 2nd edn, 1 7pp. PSS Group, Ongar.
+
Rawson, P. F. and Wright, J. K. (eds) 1992. ''The Yorkshire Coast.''
 +
 
 +
Geologists' Association Guide No.34. 2nd edn, 1 7pp. PSS Group, Ongar.
  
Rayner, D. E. and Hemingway, J. E. (eds) 1974. ''The geology and mineral resources of Yorkshire. ''ix+405pp. Yorkshire Geological Society.
+
Rayner, D. E. & Hemingway, J. E. (eds) 1974. ''The geology and mineral resources of Yorkshire. ''ix+405pp. Yorkshire Geological Society.
  
 
=== Reference works ===
 
=== Reference works ===
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Cooper, A. H. and Burgess, I. C. 1993. Geology of the country around Harrogate. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 62 (England and Wales), xii & 106 pp. HMSO, London.
 
Cooper, A. H. and Burgess, I. C. 1993. Geology of the country around Harrogate. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 62 (England and Wales), xii & 106 pp. HMSO, London.
  
Cope, J. C. W., Ingham, J. K. & Rawson, P. F. (eds) 1992. ''Atlas of palaeogeography and lithofacies. ''Geological Society Memoir No. 13, 153pp, 106 maps.
+
Cope, J. C. W., Ingham, J. K. & Rawson, P. F. (eds) 1992. ''Atlas of palaeogeography and lithofacies. ''Geological Society Memoir No. 13, 153pp, o6 maps.
  
 
de Boer G., Neale, J. W. & Penny, L. F. 1958. A guide to the geology of the area between Market Weighton and the Humber. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 31, ''157–209.
 
de Boer G., Neale, J. W. & Penny, L. F. 1958. A guide to the geology of the area between Market Weighton and the Humber. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 31, ''157–209.
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Ehlers, J. Gibbard, P. L. & Rose, J. (eds) 1991. ''Glacial Deposits in Great Britain and Ireland. ''580pp. Balkema, Rotterdam.
 
Ehlers, J. Gibbard, P. L. & Rose, J. (eds) 1991. ''Glacial Deposits in Great Britain and Ireland. ''580pp. Balkema, Rotterdam.
  
Howarth, M. K. 1962. The Jet Rock Series and the Alum Shale Series of the Yorkshire Coast. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society'', '''33''', 381–422.
+
Howarth, M. K. 1962. The Jet Rock Series and the Alum Shale Series of the Yorkshire Coast. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, ,33, 381–422.''
  
 
Lewis, D. (ed) 1991. ''The Yorkshire Coast. ''Normandy Press, Beverley, N. Humberside.
 
Lewis, D. (ed) 1991. ''The Yorkshire Coast. ''Normandy Press, Beverley, N. Humberside.
  
Milsom, J. and Rawson, P. F. 1989. The Peak Trough — a major control on the geology of the North Yorkshire coast. ''Geological Magazine'', '''126''', 699–705.
+
Milsom, J. and Rawson, P. F. 1989. The Peak Trough — a major control on the geology of the North Yorkshire coast. ''Geological Magazine, 126, ''699–705.
  
 
Pounder, E. J. 1989. ''Classic Landforms of the Northern Dales. ''28pp. Geographical Association, Sheffield.
 
Pounder, E. J. 1989. ''Classic Landforms of the Northern Dales. ''28pp. Geographical Association, Sheffield.
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Raistrick, A. 1975. ''The lead industry of Wensleydale and Swaledale. ''Vol. 1. The Mines. 120pp. Moorland Publishing Co. Ltd., Ashbourne, Derbyshire.
 
Raistrick, A. 1975. ''The lead industry of Wensleydale and Swaledale. ''Vol. 1. The Mines. 120pp. Moorland Publishing Co. Ltd., Ashbourne, Derbyshire.
  
Romano, M. and Whyte, M. A. 2003. Jurassic dinosaur tracks and trackways of the Cleveland Basin, Yorkshire: preservation, diversity and distribution. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society''', '''54''', 185–215.
+
Romano, M. and Whyte, M. A. 2003. Jurassic dinosaur tracks and trackways of the Cleveland Basin, Yorkshire: preservation, diversity and distribution. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, ''54, 185–215.
  
Rose, J. 1980. Landform development around Kisdon, upper Swaledale, Yorkshire. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society'', '''43''', 201–219.
+
Rose, J. 1980. Landform development around Kisdon, upper Swaledale, Yorkshire. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 43, ''201–219.
  
Rose, J. 1985. The Dimlington Stadial/Dimlington Chronozone: a proposal for naming the main glacial event of the Late Devensian in Britain. ''Boreas'', '''14''', 225–230.
+
Rose, J. 1985. The Dimlington Stadial/Dimlington Chronozone: a proposal for naming the main glacial event of the Late Devensian in Britain. ''Boreas, 14, ''225–230.
  
Rose, J. and Mitchell, W. A. 1989. Quaternary geology of upper Swaledale and adjoining regions: field meeting report. ''Mercian Geologist'', '''11''', 275–283.
+
Rose, J. and Mitchell, W. A. 1989. Quaternary geology of upper Swaledale and adjoining regions: field meeting report. ''Mercian Geologist,11, ''275–283.
  
 
Scotese, C. R. and McKerrow, W. S. 1990. Revised World maps and introduction. ''In ''McKerrow, W. S. & Scotese, C. R. (eds) ''Palaeozoic palaeogeography and biogeography. ''Geological Society Memoir No. 12, 1–21.
 
Scotese, C. R. and McKerrow, W. S. 1990. Revised World maps and introduction. ''In ''McKerrow, W. S. & Scotese, C. R. (eds) ''Palaeozoic palaeogeography and biogeography. ''Geological Society Memoir No. 12, 1–21.
  
Whitham, F. 1991. The stratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous Ferriby, Welton and Burnham formations north of the Humber, northeast England. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society'', '''48''', 227–254.
+
Whitham, F. 1991. The stratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous Ferriby, Welton and Burnham formations north of the Humber, northeast England. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 48, ''227–254.
  
Whyte, M. A. and Romano, M., 1993. Footprints of a sauropod dinosaur from the middle Jurassic of Yorkshire. ''Proceedings of the Geologists' Association'', '''104''', 195–199.
+
Whyte, M. A. and Romano, M., 1993. Footprints of a sauropod dinosaur from the middle Jurassic of Yorkshire. ''Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 104, ''195–199.
  
Wright, C. W. and Wright, E. V. 1942. The Chalk of the Yorkshire Wolds. ''Proceedings of the Geologists' Association.'' '''53''', 112–127.
+
Wright, C. W. and Wright, E. V. 1942. The Chalk of the Yorkshire Wolds. ''Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. ''53, 112–127.
  
Wright, J. K. 1968. The Stratigraphy of the Callovian Rocks between Newtondale and the Scarborough Coast, Yorkshire. ''Proceedings of the Geologists' Association,'' '''79''', 363–399.
+
Wright, J. K. 1968. The Stratigraphy of the Callovian Rocks between New tondale and the Scarborough Coast, Yorkshire. ''Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, ''79, 363–399.
  
Young, B. 1987. Uncommon Pennine Minerals. Part 1. Aurichalcite in the Yorkshire and Cumbria Pennines. Part 2. Strontianite from the Yorkshire Pennines. ''Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association,'' '''11'''(2–3), 25–40.
+
Young, B. 1987. Uncommon Pennine Minerals. Part 1. Aurichalcite in the Yorkshire and Cumbria Pennines. Part 2. Strontianite from the Yorkshire Pennines. ''Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association,ii ''(2–3), 25–40.
  
 
=== Collections and collectors ===
 
=== Collections and collectors ===
  
Hartley, M. M., Norris, A., Pettitt, C. W., Riley, T. H., & Stier, M. A. (1987) ''Register of Natural Science Collections in Yorkshire and Humberside. ''Area Museum and Art Gallery Service for Yorkshire and Humberside.
+
Hartley, M. M., Norris, A., Pettitt, C. W., Riley, T. H., & Stier, M. A. (1387) ''Register of Natural Science Collections in Yorkshire and Humberside. ''Area Museum and Art Gallery Service for Yorkshire and Humberside.
  
 
Nudds, J. R. (ed. on behalf of the Geological Curators' Group) (1994) ''Directory of British Geological Museums. ''Geological Society of London Miscellaneous Paper No. 18. This provides significantly more detail for some of the larger museums in the region.
 
Nudds, J. R. (ed. on behalf of the Geological Curators' Group) (1994) ''Directory of British Geological Museums. ''Geological Society of London Miscellaneous Paper No. 18. This provides significantly more detail for some of the larger museums in the region.

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