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= Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:50,000 map tile: Sheet 13 Bellingham - data sources =


[[File:Edward Greenly.png|thumb|Edward Greenly]]
== Introduction (From memoir) ==


== Edward Greenly (1861–1951) ==
[[File:P222330.jpg|thumbnail|Crag Lough and Highfield Crags, Roman Wall. ]]
The Bellingham district includes much of the Roman Wall country, the Northumbrian lakes, North Tynedale and Redesdale—all areas of outstanding, unspoilt beauty. They are underlain by Carboniferous rocks, 1600 m thick which were laid down around 300 million years ago. In the south and east, 'Yoredale'; limestones, sandstones and shales with the intrusive dolerite of the Whin Sill form scarp and dip-slope features, but in the forested areas to the north and west thick boulder clay of Pleistocene age mantles most of the solid rock and forms its own distinctive drumlin topography.
This memoir is the first comprehensive published account of the geology of the district. After an introductory chapter, the stratigraphy of the Carboniferous rocks is described in detail, with comprehensive correlation diagrams of sections and boreholes together with complementary palaeontological identifications.


Cofir am [[Edward Greenly D.Sc.|Edward Greenly]] yn bennaf am ei arolwg daearegol o Ynys Môn, gwaith y bu wrthi am bron pum mlynedd ar hugain o’i fywyd.
Accounts of the igneous rocks and structure of the region are followed by chapters on the Pleistocene and economic geology. Appendices list boreholes, shafts, measured sections and geological photographs and conclude with a comprehensive bibliography.


Image caption: Edward Greenly. Llun trwy garedigrwydd Terry Williams
===Previous research ===


== Edward Greenly (1861–1951) ==
For full references see the "[https://webapps.bgs.ac.uk/Memoirs/docs/B01495.html References]"


Campwaith pennaf [[Edward Greenly D.Sc.|Edward Greenly]] oedd cwblhau arolwg daearegol manwl o Ynys Môn. Cyhoeddwyd ''The Geology of Anglesey'' ([http://pubs.bgs.ac.uk/publications.html?pubID=B01782 Volume 1] and [http://pubs.bgs.ac.uk/publications.html?pubID=B06824 Volume 2]) mewn dwy gyfrol yn 1919 ac yna yn 1920 fap daearegol ar y raddfa un fodfedd i’r filltir. Er bod rhannau o’r gwaith wedi’u diweddaru yn ystod y degawdau dilynol, erys ei astudiaeth yn glasur o fri rhyngwladol.
Reference to the geology of the district can be found in many early works but the first systematic study was the primary six-inch geological survey by Hugh Miller Jnr., and D. Burns between 1875 and 1878. The solid edition of their one-inch map was published in 1881 followed by the drift edition in 1883. This map was not accompanied by a detailed geological succession nor were any major lithological subdivisions of the Carboniferous shown. A descriptive memoir written by Miller was not published. Small areas on the eastern and western edges of the district were resurveyed by G. A. Burnett (1932–35) and J. B. W. Day, D. H. Land and D. A. C. Mills (1954–58) respectively.
This memoir is the first comprehensive description of the geology of the district (Figure 3), though a number of generalised descriptions have appeared in works which deal with wider regions (e.g. Lebour, 1889; Garwood, 1910; Smith, 1912; Hickling and others, 1931; Taylor and others, 1971). In addition, important contributions to knowledge of the Carboniferous rocks of the district include those by Tate (1867a), Lebour (1873, 1875a, b), Johnson (1959), Fowler (1966) and Frost (1969). Igneous rocks have been studied by Tate (1867a, b, 1870). Topley and Lebour (1877), Teall (1884a, b), Heslop and Smythe (1910), Weyman (1910), Holmes and Harwood (1928, 1929), Smythe (1930), Randall (1959a, b), and Ineson (1972). Mineral deposits have been described by Wilson and others (1922), Smith (1923) and Dunham (1948); and the drift deposits and glacial retreat phenomena by Dwerryhouse (1902) and Smythe (1908, 1912).
Memoirs describing adjacent areas include those by Miller (1887), Clough (1889), Trotter and Hollingworth (1932), Fowler (1936) and Day (1970).


=== Mapio Môn ===
== Maps ==


Wrth fapio ynys Môn, gwnaeth Greenly ddefnydd mawr o syniadau tectonig a ddatblygodd wrth iddo fynd i’r afael â gwaith maes cynharach yn Ucheldiroedd yr Alban. Roedd tair prif broblem yn ei wynebu: prinder brigiadau da, yn enwedig mewn ardaloedd mewndirol allweddol bwysig; presenoldeb creigiau gorchuddiol clytiog yn cuddio yn aml y baslawr Cyn-Gambriaidd hŷn; a phresenoldeb toriadau tectonig megis ffawtiau a chylchfaoedd croesrym a oedd yn aml yn rhwystro’r gwaith o gydberthyn gwahanol ddilyniannau o greigiau. Chwaraeodd ei wraig Annie Greenly (Barnard gynt), a oedd yn rhannu ei ddiddordeb mewn daeareg a diwinyddiaeth, rôl hollbwysig drwy baratoi’r mynegai i’w gyfrol.
To view all published sheets for this areas visit the [https://webapps.bgs.ac.uk/data/maps/maps.cfc?method=listResults&MapName=&series=E50k&scale=&pageSize=100 Maps Portal].


Ganed Greenly ym Mryste ac fe’i haddysgwyd yng Ngholeg Clifton. Bu’n fyfyriwr yng Ngholeg y Brifysgol, Llundain, cyn ymuno â’r Arolwg Daearegol yn 1889. Yn gyntaf, bu gofyn iddo baratoi arolwg o Ucheldiroedd gogledd-orllewin yr Alban. Daeth yn ffrind agos ac yn gydweithiwr i [[Benjamin Neeve Peach - biographical information|Ben Peach]] yr oedd ei archwiliadau wedi bod yn gyfrwng i ddatrys adeiledd cymhleth yr Alban (gan gynnwys adnabod a sylweddoli arwyddocâd Gwthiad Moine). Rhoddodd Greenly y gorau i’w waith gyda’r Arolwg yn 1895 er mwyn iddo, o’i ben a’i bastwn ei hun. roi cychwyn ar ei arolwg o Ynys Môn.
=== Latest published maps for this area ===


=== Cyfraniadau pwysig i ddaeareg ===
{| class="wikitable"
|[[File:1001480 2000.jpg|thumbnail|]]|| [[File:1001481 2000.jpg|thumbnail|]]
|-
| Drift sheet - [https://largeimages.bgs.ac.uk/iip/mapsportal.html?id=1001480 View full map] || Solid sheet - [https://largeimages.bgs.ac.uk/iip/mapsportal.html?id=1001481 View full map]
|}


Yn gydnabyddiaeth am ei gyfraniadau pwysig i ddaeareg, cafodd Edward Greenly ei dderbyn yn aelod er anrhydedd o gymdeithasau daearegol Caeredin a Lerpwl, a Chymdeithas Hynafiaethwyr Môn. Dyfarnwyd iddo Fedal Lyell, fawr ei bri, y Gymdeithas Ddaearegol yn 1920, medal Cymdeithas Ddaearegol Lerpwl yn 1933 a doethuriaeth er anrhydedd Prifysgol Cymru yn 1920.
=== Drift map details ===
{| class="wikitable"
| Map series: || Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:63,360/1:50,000 geological map series, New Series
|-
| Sheet number: || 13
|-
| Sheet title: || Bellingham.
|-
| Map type: || Drift
|-
| Scale: || 1:50 000
|-
| Publication year: || 1980
|-
| Author statement: || Original geological survey on the Six-Inch scale by H. Miller and D. Burns in 1875-1878. Published on the One-Inch scale as Old Series Sheet 106 NE in 1881 (Solid Edition) and 1883 (Drift Edition). Eastern margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by G.A. Burnett in 1932-1935. Mineral Revision by K.C. Dunham in 1939-1945. Western margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by J.B.W. Day, D.H. Land and D.A.C. Mills in 1954-59. W. Anderson, District Geologist. Resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday in 1968-1975.
|-
| Published statement: || Published 1980. Print code: 3500/80.
|}


Ar y cyd â Howel Williams, cyhoeddodd [[Edward Greenly D.Sc.|Greenly]] ''Methods of Geological Surveying'' yn 1930 a’i hunangofiant ''A Hand through Time: Memories Romantic'' and ''Geological'' a ymddangosodd yn 1938. Bu farw ym Mangor yn 1951 ac yn briodol iawn fe’i claddwyd ym mynwent Llangristiolus, Ynys Môn. Mae ei fedd wedi’i gyfnodi’n Safle Geoamrywiaeth o Bwysigrwydd Rhanbarthol (RIGS).
=== Solid map details ===
{| class="wikitable"
| Map series: || Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:63,360/1:50,000 geological map series, New Series
|-
| Sheet number: || 13
|-
| Sheet title: || Bellingham.
|-
| Map type: || Solid
|-
| Scale: || 1:50 000
|-
| Publication year: || 1980
|-
| Author statement: || Original geological survey on the Six-Inch scale by H. Miller and D. Burns in 1875-1878. Published on the One-Inch scale as Old Series Sheet 106 NE in 1881 (Solid Edition) and 1883 (Drift Edition). Eastern margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by G.A. Burnett in 1932-1935. Mineral Revision by K.C. Dunham in 1939-1945. Western margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by J.B.W. Day, D.H. Land and D.A.C. Mills in 1954-59. W. Anderson, District Geologist. Resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday in 1968-1975.
|-
| Published statement: || Published 1980. Print code: 3500/80.
|}


== Lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland ==
=== Six-inch maps ===
The following is a list of six-inch geological maps included in the area of 1:50000 Geological Sheet 13 with the date of survey for each map. The surveying officers are: G. A. Burnett, J. B. W. Day, D. V. Frost, D. W. Holliday, D. H. Land and D. A. C. Mills. Copies of the maps are deposited for public reference in the libraries of the London and Leeds Offices of the Institute of Geological Sciences. Uncoloured dyeline copies of those marked by an asterisk are available for purchase. Xerox copies of the remaining partially surveyed sheets are also available.


The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland. Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. XVII
[[File:BellinghamIndexto10kmaps.JPG|600px|Index to National Grid six-inch geological maps]]
By G.V. Wilson. The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland. Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. XVII. Edinburgh: HMSO, 1921.
Bibliographic reference: Wilson, G.V.
Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Scotland.
Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. XVII.
The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland.
By G. V. Wilson, B.Sc. With contributions by John S. Flett, LL.D., F.R.S.
Published by order of The Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury.
Edinburgh: Printed Under The Authority of His Majesty's Stationery Office by Morrison & Gibb, Limited, Tanfield.
And to be purchased from E. Stanford, 12, 13 And 14 Long Acre, London; W. & A. K. Johnston, Limited, 2 St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh; Hodges, Figgis & Co., Limited, 104 Grafton Street, Dublin. From any Agent for the sale of Ordnance Survey Maps, or through any Bookseller, or from the Director-General, Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton. 1921. Price 7s. 6d. Net,


Preface
In Scotland the ores of lead and zinc have a wide distribution and have been worked for several centuries, though only on a small scale, except at Wanlockhead and Leadhills. Copper ores are less frequent, and nickel ores are found in only a few places. Mr. Wilson has collected information from a great variety of sources, and has personally inspected all the more important occurrences. The chapters on Caithness, Orkney and Shetland were contributed by me. It is very probable that many of the less important veins have escaped notice; but this Memoir contains a brief general account of the known mineral resources of Scotland in respect of lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores. We are indebted to many proprietors, factors, agents and mining engineers for assistance in compiling this handbook, and especially to the managers of Leadhills, Wanlockhead, Wood of Cree and Tyndrum Mines, who have given us every facility for examining their mines and records.
JOHN S: FLETT, Director.
Geological Survey Office,
28 Jermyn Street, London, S.W. 1, 8th September 1920.
Chapter 1 Lead and zinc ores
Introduction
Lead ores have a wide distribution in Scotland and, as (Plate 1) shows, veins occur in nearly every county. Many of these have been worked at one time or another, but for the most part only on a small scale and to no great depth, and little is now known of the quality of the ore produced. In many cases these old mines have fallen in, and their sites are now covered up and grassed over so that without reopening them it is impossible to form any reliable estimate of their value.
The principal districts in which lead mining has been actively carried on during the past century are: Strontian and Islay in Argyllshire, Tyndrum in Perthshire, Minnigaff in Kirkcudbrightshire (near Newton Stewart), Leadhills in Lanarkshire and Wanlockhead in Dumfriesshire. Of these, Leadhills and Wanlockhead have produced ore continuously during the whole period. Mining in the other districts named has been in abeyance for a considerable number of years, but owing to new conditions created by the war the old mines at Tyndrum and Newton Stewart are being reopened and trials have also been made on a new vein at Achanarras, in Caithness.
Historical notes
Metalliferous mining is an old industry in Scotland, and the mining of lead ores was probably carried on on a small scale at different centres at a very early period. The finding of bronze and stone implements<ref>  J. R. S. Hunter,  The Silurian Districts of Leadhills and Wanlockhead, Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, vol. vii., 1884, p. 376.</ref>  in some old surface workings at Leadhills and at Wanlockhead has led to the suggestion that these may date back to pre-Roman times. There is no evidence, however, that the Romans worked lead in Scotland, although a few pigs of Roman lead<ref>  Daniel Wilson,  Prehistoric Annals of Scotland," vol. ii., 1863, p. 64. </ref>  have occasionally been found. According to Pennant<ref>  Pennant,  A Tour of Scotland, vol. ii., 1790, p. 250.</ref> the mines of Islay may have been worked by the Norwegian invaders during their occupation of the country. Probably the earliest authentic record of lead raining refers to the Leadhills district, where in 1239<ref>  G. V. hying,  The Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, 1864, vol. i., p 50</ref>  a grant of lands and a lead mine was made to the monks of Newbattle by Sir David Lindsay, and lead ore was sent from there to Rutherglen in 1264.<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p.xxxiv.; also Compot. Camer. Scot. (Bannatyne Club), vol. i., p. 48.</ref>  Apparently the amount of lead ore raised in the country was not large, since in 1292 John Comyn,<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, , p. xxxiv.; also Stevenson, Historical Documents, Scotland, vol. i., p. 329.</ref> Earl of Buchan, got permission to import lead ore from the Isle of Man. Soon after this lead mines were working in West Argyllshire, and the accounts of the Constable of Tarbert<ref>  </ref> contain an entry of the payment of twelve pence for charcoal and labourers' wages for smelting lead ore. A lead mine was being worked on the confines of the parish of Glenorchy in Argyllshire in 1424, and it is interesting to note that it was declared a Royal Mine<ref>  The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. viii., 1793, p. 351.Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, pp. lx. and 2. Scots Acts, vol. ii., p. 5, c. 13.</ref> under a grant to the King by the Scottish Parliament of all lead mines which yielded more than 1½d. worth of silver to the pound of lead. Soon afterwards this mine was closed down and abandoned.
Up to about the sixteenth century<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.</ref> many of the mines seem to have been worked for silver principally, and the lead was often lost during cupellation. Before the end of that century the extraction of silver seems to have become unprofitable and the mines were worked for lead alone. This was often smelted on the spot in shallow hearths, and the silver neglected. In many cases the ore was exported, and the early grants of mines often gave permission to export beyond the seas<ref>  Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.; also Analecta Scotica, p. 20.</ref>  if through lack of fuel or other lawful occasion the ore could not be properly smelted at home.<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.; also Analecta Scotica, p. 85.</ref>  This export trade was carried on mainly through the Port of Leith,<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. lv.; also Analecta Scotica, pp. 91-94.</ref> and between 1585 and 1590,<ref> Lesley, De origins, etc., Scotorum, 1675, p. 11.</ref>  15,717 "stones" of lead ore were shipped for foreign use.
The period from the latter part of the fifteenth to the beginning of the seventeenth century was one of great activity in mining and prospecting, due mainly to the discovery of the gold-bearing gravels of the Leadhills district.<ref> Cottonian MS. (Reprinted by J. R. S. Hunter), The Silurian Districts of Leadhills and Wanlockhead, Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, vol. vii., 1884, p. 388.</ref>  At one time as many as 300 men were employed here during the summer months, and gold to the value of £100,000 is said to have been collected in three years. The Treasurer's Accounts<ref> Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. a-v.; also Compota Thesaurarii, 1539-40. MSS, Reg. Ho., Edin.</ref> contain numerous entries of payments of gold, and also the interesting statement that some of it was used to form the Scottish Crown Regalia in 1542. The richer deposits soon became exhausted, and work ceased when the price of a man's labour exceeded 4d. per diem. During the whole of this period an active search for lead ore seems to have been kept up, and many of the Leadhills and Wanlockhead veins were discovered. In 1593<ref>  Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, pp. xviii., 98.</ref>  the Leadhills mines were in the hands of Thomas Foullis, who seems to have recognised that the gold-fields were unprofitable, and consequently to have concentrated his energies on the development of the lead mines. By 1597<ref>  Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, pp. Iv., 101; also Scots Acts, vol. iv., p. 84, c. 71.</ref>  the industry appears to have been in a thriving condition, and the Privy Council issued a proclamation to the effect that any one interfering with the carriers of lead should be severely punished, while the latter were authorised to wear a blazon of lead stamped with the Royal Arms and the private mark of the lessee of the mines.
In 1606 great excitement was caused by the discovery of the silver-lead mine at Hilderstone,<ref> Atkinson, Discovery and Historie of the Gold Mynes in Scotland (Bannatyne Club, 1835), p. 47; also Cochran Patrick, Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. xxxvii.</ref>  near Bathgate. According to report this mine was very productive for a short time and extravagant hopes were raised, but the richer portion soon became exhausted and the mine was abandoned as unprofitable.
A slump in mining enterprise seems to have set in-during the latter half of the seventeenth century, but interest revived with the discovery of the Alva silver mine in 1711<ref> Cochran Patrick, Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. xliii.</ref>  For a short time this mine was very profitable, and is said to have returned a monthly yield of £4000 worth of silver. Like Hilderstone it soon became exhausted, and was eventually abandoned. An active search for lead ore was in progress at this time, and resulted in the opening up of mines at Strontian in 1722, and at Tyndrum in 1739. In 1760 this search for lead brought about the discovery of the Glendinning antimony mine, near Langholm.<ref> Williams, The Natural History of the Mineral Kingdom, vol. ii., 1810, p. 479.</ref> The Black Craig Mine (Newton Stewart) was accidentally discovered in 1763,<ref> The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. vii., 1793, p. 54.</ref> and soon afterwards other veins were noticed in that district, one of copper ore being found by Leadhills miners on their way through to Blackcraig<ref> The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. iv., 1792, p. 263.</ref>
From this time to the end of the Napoleonic wars the lead industry appears to have been in an active state, and large quantities of ore were raised. After the signing of peace in 1815 the price of lead fell rapidly from £32 per ton in 1809 to £13 in 1829. Under these conditions several of the mines were closed down, but apparently only temporarily, as between 1840 and 1880 no less than twenty mines were worked for lead ore, including Woodhead, near Carsphairn, which was discovered in 1839. In the early days the ore was practically always smelted locally in shallow hearths, which were often placed in exposed positions so as to take advantage of the prevailing winds, and peat was generally used for fuel. Coal was first used for the purpose in Scotland at Wanlockhead in 1727, and the hearths of that period have by gradual improvements been developed into the present type of Scotch hearths. The Strontian furnaces were built about 1730, and those at Tyndrum in 1768-9.
Many of the small mines appear to have had furnaces of their own, but others apparently were never equipped with smelting appliances, and the ore was often transported either to Holland or to England. These early furnaces were very inefficient, and a large proportion of the lead was lost in the form of waste fumes. Latterly, by the addition of long condensing flues, much of this fume lead was saved. Straight flues, such as those to be seen at Woodhead, were first used, but it was subsequently found that by "zig-zagging" them a much larger proportion of lead could be recovered. Leadhills and Wanlockhead were fitted with this type, but the former were abandoned about 1890, and since that time the Wanlockhead furnaces, together with some in Glasgow, have been the only ones working in Scotland.
The working of zinc ores is a small and recent development of Scottish mining, but a large extraction plant for treating imported ores has recently been erected at Irvine, on the Ayrshire coast.
Statistics
Output of lead ore
Few records exist as to the early output of the mines. We find, however, that in 1466, James Lord Hamilton<ref>  Cochran Patrick, Early Records Relating to Mining in Scotland, 1873, p. xxxiv , and Acta Dominorium Auditorum, p. 6.</ref>  was summoned by the Abbot of Newbattle for removing 1000 " stones" of lead ore from Friar's Moor (Leadhills district), but no information is given as to the time taken to raise the ore. Between 1585 and 1590, 15,717 " stones " of lead were exported from the country,<ref> Balcarras MS., Anelecta Scotica, First Series, pp. 91-94</ref>  and papers in the Mar and Kellie charter chest<ref>  Hume Brown, Scotland in the Time of Queen Mary, 1904, p. 228.</ref>  give the amount exported in 1614 as 30,000 "stones," which was valued at £20,000 Scots. The old records of the Tyndruni. Mines show that 5017 tons of lead were raised there between 1741 and 1768. The Strontian mines seem at one time to have yielded about 400 tons of lead per annum, and Wanlockhead and Leadhills may be said to have each produced an average of 1000 tons of lead per annum for the last 120 years. Definite figures of output exist since 1852, and the following tables, taken from the Mining Statistics issued by the Geological Survey and from the Home Office Reports, give the total output and other information concerning all mines worked from that time to the present day.
Output of lead from Scottish mines during the period 1850-1920


[[Category:Welsh geologists]]
{| class="wikitable"
| NY 66 NE Tipalt Burn || Day || 1954
|-
| NY 67 SE* Wileysike || Day || 1954
|-
| NY 67 NE* Churnsike || Mills || 1954–58
|-
| NY 68 SE* Christy's Crags || Mills || 1957–58
|-
| NY 68 NE Whickhope || Land || 1958
|-
| NY 76 NW Edges Green || Frost || 1973
|-
| NY 76 NE Broomlee and Greenlee || Frost || 1973
|-
| NY 77 SW* Grindon Green || Frost || 1970
|-
| NY 77 SE* Shepherdshield || Frost || 1968–69
|-
| NY 77 NW* Green Moor || Holliday || 1974
|-
| NY 77 NE* Blackaburn and Stonehaugh || Frost || 1972–73
|-
| NY 78.SW* Chirdon Burn || Holliday || 1973–74
|-
| NY 78 NW Falstone || Holliday || 1973
|-
| NY 78 NE Greenhaugh || Holliday || 1973
|-
| NY 86 NW Grindon Hill || Frost and Holliday || 1968
|-
| NY 86 NE Newbrough and Fourstones || Holliday || 1968
|-
| NY 87 SW* Sewingshields || Frost || 1968
|-
| NY 87 SE* Simonburn || Frost and Holliday || 1968–69
|-
| NY 87 NW* Warksburn || Frost || 1971
|-
| NY 87 NE* Birtley and Wark || Frost || 1970
|-
| NY 88 SW* Bellingham || Frost || 1972–73
|-
| NY 88 SE* Redesmouth || Frost || 1972
|-
| NY 88 NW Hareshaw || Frost || 1973
|-
| NY 88 NE West Woodburn || Frost || 1973
|-
| NY 96 NW Wall || Holliday || 1971
|-
| NY 96 NE Stagshaw || Burnett and Holliday || 1935, 1971
|-
| NY 97 SW* Barrasford || Holliday || 1971
|-
| NY 97 SE* Bingfield || Burnett and Holliday || 1934–35,1968,1971
|-
| NY 97 NW* Gunnerton || Frost || 1971
|-
| NY 97 NE* Hallington || Burnett and Holliday || 1932–34,1971–73
|-
| NY 98 SW* Ridsdale || Frost || 1972–73
|-
| NY 98 SE* Great Bavington || Burnett and Holliday || 1932–33,1972–73
|-
| NY 98 NW East Woodburn || Frost || 1973
|-
| NY 98 NE Raechester || Burnett and Holliday || 1933, 1973
|}


[[Category:Pioneers of the British Geological Survey]]
== Memoir ==
'''Geology of the country around Bellingham. Memoir for 1:50 000 geological sheet 13 by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday'''
 
Bibliographical reference: Frost, D.V. and Holliday, D.W. 1980. Geology of the country around Bellingham. Mem. Geol. Surv. G.B., Sheet 13, 112 pp.
 
[https://webapps.bgs.ac.uk/Memoirs/docs/B01495.html View searchable copy]
 
[https://pubs.bgs.ac.uk/publications.html?pubID=B01495 View original printed memoir]

Latest revision as of 18:59, 16 August 2022

Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:50,000 map tile: Sheet 13 Bellingham - data sources

Introduction (From memoir)

Crag Lough and Highfield Crags, Roman Wall.

The Bellingham district includes much of the Roman Wall country, the Northumbrian lakes, North Tynedale and Redesdale—all areas of outstanding, unspoilt beauty. They are underlain by Carboniferous rocks, 1600 m thick which were laid down around 300 million years ago. In the south and east, 'Yoredale'; limestones, sandstones and shales with the intrusive dolerite of the Whin Sill form scarp and dip-slope features, but in the forested areas to the north and west thick boulder clay of Pleistocene age mantles most of the solid rock and forms its own distinctive drumlin topography. This memoir is the first comprehensive published account of the geology of the district. After an introductory chapter, the stratigraphy of the Carboniferous rocks is described in detail, with comprehensive correlation diagrams of sections and boreholes together with complementary palaeontological identifications.

Accounts of the igneous rocks and structure of the region are followed by chapters on the Pleistocene and economic geology. Appendices list boreholes, shafts, measured sections and geological photographs and conclude with a comprehensive bibliography.

Previous research

For full references see the "References"

Reference to the geology of the district can be found in many early works but the first systematic study was the primary six-inch geological survey by Hugh Miller Jnr., and D. Burns between 1875 and 1878. The solid edition of their one-inch map was published in 1881 followed by the drift edition in 1883. This map was not accompanied by a detailed geological succession nor were any major lithological subdivisions of the Carboniferous shown. A descriptive memoir written by Miller was not published. Small areas on the eastern and western edges of the district were resurveyed by G. A. Burnett (1932–35) and J. B. W. Day, D. H. Land and D. A. C. Mills (1954–58) respectively. This memoir is the first comprehensive description of the geology of the district (Figure 3), though a number of generalised descriptions have appeared in works which deal with wider regions (e.g. Lebour, 1889; Garwood, 1910; Smith, 1912; Hickling and others, 1931; Taylor and others, 1971). In addition, important contributions to knowledge of the Carboniferous rocks of the district include those by Tate (1867a), Lebour (1873, 1875a, b), Johnson (1959), Fowler (1966) and Frost (1969). Igneous rocks have been studied by Tate (1867a, b, 1870). Topley and Lebour (1877), Teall (1884a, b), Heslop and Smythe (1910), Weyman (1910), Holmes and Harwood (1928, 1929), Smythe (1930), Randall (1959a, b), and Ineson (1972). Mineral deposits have been described by Wilson and others (1922), Smith (1923) and Dunham (1948); and the drift deposits and glacial retreat phenomena by Dwerryhouse (1902) and Smythe (1908, 1912). Memoirs describing adjacent areas include those by Miller (1887), Clough (1889), Trotter and Hollingworth (1932), Fowler (1936) and Day (1970).

Maps

To view all published sheets for this areas visit the Maps Portal.

Latest published maps for this area

1001480 2000.jpg
1001481 2000.jpg
Drift sheet - View full map Solid sheet - View full map

Drift map details

Map series: Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:63,360/1:50,000 geological map series, New Series
Sheet number: 13
Sheet title: Bellingham.
Map type: Drift
Scale: 1:50 000
Publication year: 1980
Author statement: Original geological survey on the Six-Inch scale by H. Miller and D. Burns in 1875-1878. Published on the One-Inch scale as Old Series Sheet 106 NE in 1881 (Solid Edition) and 1883 (Drift Edition). Eastern margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by G.A. Burnett in 1932-1935. Mineral Revision by K.C. Dunham in 1939-1945. Western margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by J.B.W. Day, D.H. Land and D.A.C. Mills in 1954-59. W. Anderson, District Geologist. Resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday in 1968-1975.
Published statement: Published 1980. Print code: 3500/80.

Solid map details

Map series: Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:63,360/1:50,000 geological map series, New Series
Sheet number: 13
Sheet title: Bellingham.
Map type: Solid
Scale: 1:50 000
Publication year: 1980
Author statement: Original geological survey on the Six-Inch scale by H. Miller and D. Burns in 1875-1878. Published on the One-Inch scale as Old Series Sheet 106 NE in 1881 (Solid Edition) and 1883 (Drift Edition). Eastern margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by G.A. Burnett in 1932-1935. Mineral Revision by K.C. Dunham in 1939-1945. Western margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by J.B.W. Day, D.H. Land and D.A.C. Mills in 1954-59. W. Anderson, District Geologist. Resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday in 1968-1975.
Published statement: Published 1980. Print code: 3500/80.

Six-inch maps

The following is a list of six-inch geological maps included in the area of 1:50000 Geological Sheet 13 with the date of survey for each map. The surveying officers are: G. A. Burnett, J. B. W. Day, D. V. Frost, D. W. Holliday, D. H. Land and D. A. C. Mills. Copies of the maps are deposited for public reference in the libraries of the London and Leeds Offices of the Institute of Geological Sciences. Uncoloured dyeline copies of those marked by an asterisk are available for purchase. Xerox copies of the remaining partially surveyed sheets are also available.

Index to National Grid six-inch geological maps


NY 66 NE Tipalt Burn Day 1954
NY 67 SE* Wileysike Day 1954
NY 67 NE* Churnsike Mills 1954–58
NY 68 SE* Christy's Crags Mills 1957–58
NY 68 NE Whickhope Land 1958
NY 76 NW Edges Green Frost 1973
NY 76 NE Broomlee and Greenlee Frost 1973
NY 77 SW* Grindon Green Frost 1970
NY 77 SE* Shepherdshield Frost 1968–69
NY 77 NW* Green Moor Holliday 1974
NY 77 NE* Blackaburn and Stonehaugh Frost 1972–73
NY 78.SW* Chirdon Burn Holliday 1973–74
NY 78 NW Falstone Holliday 1973
NY 78 NE Greenhaugh Holliday 1973
NY 86 NW Grindon Hill Frost and Holliday 1968
NY 86 NE Newbrough and Fourstones Holliday 1968
NY 87 SW* Sewingshields Frost 1968
NY 87 SE* Simonburn Frost and Holliday 1968–69
NY 87 NW* Warksburn Frost 1971
NY 87 NE* Birtley and Wark Frost 1970
NY 88 SW* Bellingham Frost 1972–73
NY 88 SE* Redesmouth Frost 1972
NY 88 NW Hareshaw Frost 1973
NY 88 NE West Woodburn Frost 1973
NY 96 NW Wall Holliday 1971
NY 96 NE Stagshaw Burnett and Holliday 1935, 1971
NY 97 SW* Barrasford Holliday 1971
NY 97 SE* Bingfield Burnett and Holliday 1934–35,1968,1971
NY 97 NW* Gunnerton Frost 1971
NY 97 NE* Hallington Burnett and Holliday 1932–34,1971–73
NY 98 SW* Ridsdale Frost 1972–73
NY 98 SE* Great Bavington Burnett and Holliday 1932–33,1972–73
NY 98 NW East Woodburn Frost 1973
NY 98 NE Raechester Burnett and Holliday 1933, 1973

Memoir

Geology of the country around Bellingham. Memoir for 1:50 000 geological sheet 13 by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday

Bibliographical reference: Frost, D.V. and Holliday, D.W. 1980. Geology of the country around Bellingham. Mem. Geol. Surv. G.B., Sheet 13, 112 pp.

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