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= Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:50,000 map tile: Sheet 13 Bellingham - data sources =


[[File:Edward Greenly.png|thumb|Edward Greenly]]
== Introduction (From memoir) ==


== Edward Greenly (1861–1951) ==
[[File:P222330.jpg|thumbnail|Crag Lough and Highfield Crags, Roman Wall. ]]
The Bellingham district includes much of the Roman Wall country, the Northumbrian lakes, North Tynedale and Redesdale—all areas of outstanding, unspoilt beauty. They are underlain by Carboniferous rocks, 1600 m thick which were laid down around 300 million years ago. In the south and east, 'Yoredale'; limestones, sandstones and shales with the intrusive dolerite of the Whin Sill form scarp and dip-slope features, but in the forested areas to the north and west thick boulder clay of Pleistocene age mantles most of the solid rock and forms its own distinctive drumlin topography.
This memoir is the first comprehensive published account of the geology of the district. After an introductory chapter, the stratigraphy of the Carboniferous rocks is described in detail, with comprehensive correlation diagrams of sections and boreholes together with complementary palaeontological identifications.


Cofir am [[Edward Greenly D.Sc.|Edward Greenly]] yn bennaf am ei arolwg daearegol o Ynys Môn, gwaith y bu wrthi am bron pum mlynedd ar hugain o’i fywyd.
Accounts of the igneous rocks and structure of the region are followed by chapters on the Pleistocene and economic geology. Appendices list boreholes, shafts, measured sections and geological photographs and conclude with a comprehensive bibliography.


Image caption: Edward Greenly. Llun trwy garedigrwydd Terry Williams
===Previous research ===


== Edward Greenly (1861–1951) ==
For full references see the "[https://webapps.bgs.ac.uk/Memoirs/docs/B01495.html References]"


Campwaith pennaf [[Edward Greenly D.Sc.|Edward Greenly]] oedd cwblhau arolwg daearegol manwl o Ynys Môn. Cyhoeddwyd ''The Geology of Anglesey'' ([http://pubs.bgs.ac.uk/publications.html?pubID=B01782 Volume 1] and [http://pubs.bgs.ac.uk/publications.html?pubID=B06824 Volume 2]) mewn dwy gyfrol yn 1919 ac yna yn 1920 fap daearegol ar y raddfa un fodfedd i’r filltir. Er bod rhannau o’r gwaith wedi’u diweddaru yn ystod y degawdau dilynol, erys ei astudiaeth yn glasur o fri rhyngwladol.
Reference to the geology of the district can be found in many early works but the first systematic study was the primary six-inch geological survey by Hugh Miller Jnr., and D. Burns between 1875 and 1878. The solid edition of their one-inch map was published in 1881 followed by the drift edition in 1883. This map was not accompanied by a detailed geological succession nor were any major lithological subdivisions of the Carboniferous shown. A descriptive memoir written by Miller was not published. Small areas on the eastern and western edges of the district were resurveyed by G. A. Burnett (1932–35) and J. B. W. Day, D. H. Land and D. A. C. Mills (1954–58) respectively.
This memoir is the first comprehensive description of the geology of the district (Figure 3), though a number of generalised descriptions have appeared in works which deal with wider regions (e.g. Lebour, 1889; Garwood, 1910; Smith, 1912; Hickling and others, 1931; Taylor and others, 1971). In addition, important contributions to knowledge of the Carboniferous rocks of the district include those by Tate (1867a), Lebour (1873, 1875a, b), Johnson (1959), Fowler (1966) and Frost (1969). Igneous rocks have been studied by Tate (1867a, b, 1870). Topley and Lebour (1877), Teall (1884a, b), Heslop and Smythe (1910), Weyman (1910), Holmes and Harwood (1928, 1929), Smythe (1930), Randall (1959a, b), and Ineson (1972). Mineral deposits have been described by Wilson and others (1922), Smith (1923) and Dunham (1948); and the drift deposits and glacial retreat phenomena by Dwerryhouse (1902) and Smythe (1908, 1912).
Memoirs describing adjacent areas include those by Miller (1887), Clough (1889), Trotter and Hollingworth (1932), Fowler (1936) and Day (1970).


=== Mapio Môn ===
== Maps ==


Wrth fapio ynys Môn, gwnaeth Greenly ddefnydd mawr o syniadau tectonig a ddatblygodd wrth iddo fynd i’r afael â gwaith maes cynharach yn Ucheldiroedd yr Alban. Roedd tair prif broblem yn ei wynebu: prinder brigiadau da, yn enwedig mewn ardaloedd mewndirol allweddol bwysig; presenoldeb creigiau gorchuddiol clytiog yn cuddio yn aml y baslawr Cyn-Gambriaidd hŷn; a phresenoldeb toriadau tectonig megis ffawtiau a chylchfaoedd croesrym a oedd yn aml yn rhwystro’r gwaith o gydberthyn gwahanol ddilyniannau o greigiau. Chwaraeodd ei wraig Annie Greenly (Barnard gynt), a oedd yn rhannu ei ddiddordeb mewn daeareg a diwinyddiaeth, rôl hollbwysig drwy baratoi’r mynegai i’w gyfrol.
To view all published sheets for this areas visit the [https://webapps.bgs.ac.uk/data/maps/maps.cfc?method=listResults&MapName=&series=E50k&scale=&pageSize=100 Maps Portal].


Ganed Greenly ym Mryste ac fe’i haddysgwyd yng Ngholeg Clifton. Bu’n fyfyriwr yng Ngholeg y Brifysgol, Llundain, cyn ymuno â’r Arolwg Daearegol yn 1889. Yn gyntaf, bu gofyn iddo baratoi arolwg o Ucheldiroedd gogledd-orllewin yr Alban. Daeth yn ffrind agos ac yn gydweithiwr i [[Benjamin Neeve Peach - biographical information|Ben Peach]] yr oedd ei archwiliadau wedi bod yn gyfrwng i ddatrys adeiledd cymhleth yr Alban (gan gynnwys adnabod a sylweddoli arwyddocâd Gwthiad Moine). Rhoddodd Greenly y gorau i’w waith gyda’r Arolwg yn 1895 er mwyn iddo, o’i ben a’i bastwn ei hun. roi cychwyn ar ei arolwg o Ynys Môn.
=== Latest published maps for this area ===


=== Cyfraniadau pwysig i ddaeareg ===
{| class="wikitable"
|[[File:1001480 2000.jpg|thumbnail|]]|| [[File:1001481 2000.jpg|thumbnail|]]
|-
| Drift sheet - [https://largeimages.bgs.ac.uk/iip/mapsportal.html?id=1001480 View full map] || Solid sheet - [https://largeimages.bgs.ac.uk/iip/mapsportal.html?id=1001481 View full map]
|}


Yn gydnabyddiaeth am ei gyfraniadau pwysig i ddaeareg, cafodd Edward Greenly ei dderbyn yn aelod er anrhydedd o gymdeithasau daearegol Caeredin a Lerpwl, a Chymdeithas Hynafiaethwyr Môn. Dyfarnwyd iddo Fedal Lyell, fawr ei bri, y Gymdeithas Ddaearegol yn 1920, medal Cymdeithas Ddaearegol Lerpwl yn 1933 a doethuriaeth er anrhydedd Prifysgol Cymru yn 1920.
=== Drift map details ===
{| class="wikitable"
| Map series: || Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:63,360/1:50,000 geological map series, New Series
|-
| Sheet number: || 13
|-
| Sheet title: || Bellingham.
|-
| Map type: || Drift
|-
| Scale: || 1:50 000
|-
| Publication year: || 1980
|-
| Author statement: || Original geological survey on the Six-Inch scale by H. Miller and D. Burns in 1875-1878. Published on the One-Inch scale as Old Series Sheet 106 NE in 1881 (Solid Edition) and 1883 (Drift Edition). Eastern margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by G.A. Burnett in 1932-1935. Mineral Revision by K.C. Dunham in 1939-1945. Western margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by J.B.W. Day, D.H. Land and D.A.C. Mills in 1954-59. W. Anderson, District Geologist. Resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday in 1968-1975.
|-
| Published statement: || Published 1980. Print code: 3500/80.
|}


Ar y cyd â Howel Williams, cyhoeddodd [[Edward Greenly D.Sc.|Greenly]] ''Methods of Geological Surveying'' yn 1930 a’i hunangofiant ''A Hand through Time: Memories Romantic'' and ''Geological'' a ymddangosodd yn 1938. Bu farw ym Mangor yn 1951 ac yn briodol iawn fe’i claddwyd ym mynwent Llangristiolus, Ynys Môn. Mae ei fedd wedi’i gyfnodi’n Safle Geoamrywiaeth o Bwysigrwydd Rhanbarthol (RIGS).
=== Solid map details ===
{| class="wikitable"
| Map series: || Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:63,360/1:50,000 geological map series, New Series
|-
| Sheet number: || 13
|-
| Sheet title: || Bellingham.
|-
| Map type: || Solid
|-
| Scale: || 1:50 000
|-
| Publication year: || 1980
|-
| Author statement: || Original geological survey on the Six-Inch scale by H. Miller and D. Burns in 1875-1878. Published on the One-Inch scale as Old Series Sheet 106 NE in 1881 (Solid Edition) and 1883 (Drift Edition). Eastern margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by G.A. Burnett in 1932-1935. Mineral Revision by K.C. Dunham in 1939-1945. Western margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by J.B.W. Day, D.H. Land and D.A.C. Mills in 1954-59. W. Anderson, District Geologist. Resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday in 1968-1975.
|-
| Published statement: || Published 1980. Print code: 3500/80.
|}


=== Six-inch maps ===
The following is a list of six-inch geological maps included in the area of 1:50000 Geological Sheet 13 with the date of survey for each map. The surveying officers are: G. A. Burnett, J. B. W. Day, D. V. Frost, D. W. Holliday, D. H. Land and D. A. C. Mills. Copies of the maps are deposited for public reference in the libraries of the London and Leeds Offices of the Institute of Geological Sciences. Uncoloured dyeline copies of those marked by an asterisk are available for purchase. Xerox copies of the remaining partially surveyed sheets are also available.


= BGS175 175th Anniversary Science Symposium of the founding of the British Geological Survey, 28th September, Royal Institution, London =
[[File:BellinghamIndexto10kmaps.JPG|600px|Index to National Grid six-inch geological maps]]


The British Geological Survey is the world's oldest national geological survey and commemorated its 175th anniversary in 2010.


The event was marked by a one-day science symposium on 28 September 2010.
{| class="wikitable"
| NY 66 NE Tipalt Burn || Day || 1954
|-
| NY 67 SE* Wileysike || Day || 1954
|-
| NY 67 NE* Churnsike || Mills || 1954–58
|-
| NY 68 SE* Christy's Crags || Mills || 1957–58
|-
| NY 68 NE Whickhope || Land || 1958
|-
| NY 76 NW Edges Green || Frost || 1973
|-
| NY 76 NE Broomlee and Greenlee || Frost || 1973
|-
| NY 77 SW* Grindon Green || Frost || 1970
|-
| NY 77 SE* Shepherdshield || Frost || 1968–69
|-
| NY 77 NW* Green Moor || Holliday || 1974
|-
| NY 77 NE* Blackaburn and Stonehaugh || Frost || 1972–73
|-
| NY 78.SW* Chirdon Burn || Holliday || 1973–74
|-
| NY 78 NW Falstone || Holliday || 1973
|-
| NY 78 NE Greenhaugh || Holliday || 1973
|-
| NY 86 NW Grindon Hill || Frost and Holliday || 1968
|-
| NY 86 NE Newbrough and Fourstones || Holliday || 1968
|-
| NY 87 SW* Sewingshields || Frost || 1968
|-
| NY 87 SE* Simonburn || Frost and Holliday || 1968–69
|-
| NY 87 NW* Warksburn || Frost || 1971
|-
| NY 87 NE* Birtley and Wark || Frost || 1970
|-
| NY 88 SW* Bellingham || Frost || 1972–73
|-
| NY 88 SE* Redesmouth || Frost || 1972
|-
| NY 88 NW Hareshaw || Frost || 1973
|-
| NY 88 NE West Woodburn || Frost || 1973
|-
| NY 96 NW Wall || Holliday || 1971
|-
| NY 96 NE Stagshaw || Burnett and Holliday || 1935, 1971
|-
| NY 97 SW* Barrasford || Holliday || 1971
|-
| NY 97 SE* Bingfield || Burnett and Holliday || 1934–35,1968,1971
|-
| NY 97 NW* Gunnerton || Frost || 1971
|-
| NY 97 NE* Hallington || Burnett and Holliday || 1932–34,1971–73
|-
| NY 98 SW* Ridsdale || Frost || 1972–73
|-
| NY 98 SE* Great Bavington || Burnett and Holliday || 1932–33,1972–73
|-
| NY 98 NW East Woodburn || Frost || 1973
|-
| NY 98 NE Raechester || Burnett and Holliday || 1933, 1973
|}


The symposium showcased our world-class science and technologies, demonstrating their relevance, societal benefits and positive impacts in addressing 21st century challenges; including living with environmental change, energy and natural resource security, rising CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and geohazards.
== Memoir ==
'''Geology of the country around Bellingham. Memoir for 1:50 000 geological sheet 13 by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday'''


:Peak metal: Scarcity of supply or scare story?
Bibliographical reference: Frost, D.V. and Holliday, D.W. 1980. Geology of the country around Bellingham. Mem. Geol. Surv. G.B., Sheet 13, 112 pp.
:Bronze Age Mediterraneans may have visited Stonehenge
:Modelling of Icelandic volcanic ash particles


The event was attended by influential stakeholders including representatives from government, industry, academia, international geological surveys, students and the national media.
[https://webapps.bgs.ac.uk/Memoirs/docs/B01495.html View searchable copy]


Guest speakers included Dr Marcia McNutt, and [https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/staff/iain-stewart Professor Iain Stewart].
[https://pubs.bgs.ac.uk/publications.html?pubID=B01495 View original printed memoir]

Latest revision as of 18:59, 16 August 2022

Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:50,000 map tile: Sheet 13 Bellingham - data sources

Introduction (From memoir)

Crag Lough and Highfield Crags, Roman Wall.

The Bellingham district includes much of the Roman Wall country, the Northumbrian lakes, North Tynedale and Redesdale—all areas of outstanding, unspoilt beauty. They are underlain by Carboniferous rocks, 1600 m thick which were laid down around 300 million years ago. In the south and east, 'Yoredale'; limestones, sandstones and shales with the intrusive dolerite of the Whin Sill form scarp and dip-slope features, but in the forested areas to the north and west thick boulder clay of Pleistocene age mantles most of the solid rock and forms its own distinctive drumlin topography. This memoir is the first comprehensive published account of the geology of the district. After an introductory chapter, the stratigraphy of the Carboniferous rocks is described in detail, with comprehensive correlation diagrams of sections and boreholes together with complementary palaeontological identifications.

Accounts of the igneous rocks and structure of the region are followed by chapters on the Pleistocene and economic geology. Appendices list boreholes, shafts, measured sections and geological photographs and conclude with a comprehensive bibliography.

Previous research

For full references see the "References"

Reference to the geology of the district can be found in many early works but the first systematic study was the primary six-inch geological survey by Hugh Miller Jnr., and D. Burns between 1875 and 1878. The solid edition of their one-inch map was published in 1881 followed by the drift edition in 1883. This map was not accompanied by a detailed geological succession nor were any major lithological subdivisions of the Carboniferous shown. A descriptive memoir written by Miller was not published. Small areas on the eastern and western edges of the district were resurveyed by G. A. Burnett (1932–35) and J. B. W. Day, D. H. Land and D. A. C. Mills (1954–58) respectively. This memoir is the first comprehensive description of the geology of the district (Figure 3), though a number of generalised descriptions have appeared in works which deal with wider regions (e.g. Lebour, 1889; Garwood, 1910; Smith, 1912; Hickling and others, 1931; Taylor and others, 1971). In addition, important contributions to knowledge of the Carboniferous rocks of the district include those by Tate (1867a), Lebour (1873, 1875a, b), Johnson (1959), Fowler (1966) and Frost (1969). Igneous rocks have been studied by Tate (1867a, b, 1870). Topley and Lebour (1877), Teall (1884a, b), Heslop and Smythe (1910), Weyman (1910), Holmes and Harwood (1928, 1929), Smythe (1930), Randall (1959a, b), and Ineson (1972). Mineral deposits have been described by Wilson and others (1922), Smith (1923) and Dunham (1948); and the drift deposits and glacial retreat phenomena by Dwerryhouse (1902) and Smythe (1908, 1912). Memoirs describing adjacent areas include those by Miller (1887), Clough (1889), Trotter and Hollingworth (1932), Fowler (1936) and Day (1970).

Maps

To view all published sheets for this areas visit the Maps Portal.

Latest published maps for this area

1001480 2000.jpg
1001481 2000.jpg
Drift sheet - View full map Solid sheet - View full map

Drift map details

Map series: Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:63,360/1:50,000 geological map series, New Series
Sheet number: 13
Sheet title: Bellingham.
Map type: Drift
Scale: 1:50 000
Publication year: 1980
Author statement: Original geological survey on the Six-Inch scale by H. Miller and D. Burns in 1875-1878. Published on the One-Inch scale as Old Series Sheet 106 NE in 1881 (Solid Edition) and 1883 (Drift Edition). Eastern margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by G.A. Burnett in 1932-1935. Mineral Revision by K.C. Dunham in 1939-1945. Western margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by J.B.W. Day, D.H. Land and D.A.C. Mills in 1954-59. W. Anderson, District Geologist. Resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday in 1968-1975.
Published statement: Published 1980. Print code: 3500/80.

Solid map details

Map series: Geological Survey of England and Wales 1:63,360/1:50,000 geological map series, New Series
Sheet number: 13
Sheet title: Bellingham.
Map type: Solid
Scale: 1:50 000
Publication year: 1980
Author statement: Original geological survey on the Six-Inch scale by H. Miller and D. Burns in 1875-1878. Published on the One-Inch scale as Old Series Sheet 106 NE in 1881 (Solid Edition) and 1883 (Drift Edition). Eastern margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by G.A. Burnett in 1932-1935. Mineral Revision by K.C. Dunham in 1939-1945. Western margin resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by J.B.W. Day, D.H. Land and D.A.C. Mills in 1954-59. W. Anderson, District Geologist. Resurveyed on the Six-Inch scale by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday in 1968-1975.
Published statement: Published 1980. Print code: 3500/80.

Six-inch maps

The following is a list of six-inch geological maps included in the area of 1:50000 Geological Sheet 13 with the date of survey for each map. The surveying officers are: G. A. Burnett, J. B. W. Day, D. V. Frost, D. W. Holliday, D. H. Land and D. A. C. Mills. Copies of the maps are deposited for public reference in the libraries of the London and Leeds Offices of the Institute of Geological Sciences. Uncoloured dyeline copies of those marked by an asterisk are available for purchase. Xerox copies of the remaining partially surveyed sheets are also available.

Index to National Grid six-inch geological maps


NY 66 NE Tipalt Burn Day 1954
NY 67 SE* Wileysike Day 1954
NY 67 NE* Churnsike Mills 1954–58
NY 68 SE* Christy's Crags Mills 1957–58
NY 68 NE Whickhope Land 1958
NY 76 NW Edges Green Frost 1973
NY 76 NE Broomlee and Greenlee Frost 1973
NY 77 SW* Grindon Green Frost 1970
NY 77 SE* Shepherdshield Frost 1968–69
NY 77 NW* Green Moor Holliday 1974
NY 77 NE* Blackaburn and Stonehaugh Frost 1972–73
NY 78.SW* Chirdon Burn Holliday 1973–74
NY 78 NW Falstone Holliday 1973
NY 78 NE Greenhaugh Holliday 1973
NY 86 NW Grindon Hill Frost and Holliday 1968
NY 86 NE Newbrough and Fourstones Holliday 1968
NY 87 SW* Sewingshields Frost 1968
NY 87 SE* Simonburn Frost and Holliday 1968–69
NY 87 NW* Warksburn Frost 1971
NY 87 NE* Birtley and Wark Frost 1970
NY 88 SW* Bellingham Frost 1972–73
NY 88 SE* Redesmouth Frost 1972
NY 88 NW Hareshaw Frost 1973
NY 88 NE West Woodburn Frost 1973
NY 96 NW Wall Holliday 1971
NY 96 NE Stagshaw Burnett and Holliday 1935, 1971
NY 97 SW* Barrasford Holliday 1971
NY 97 SE* Bingfield Burnett and Holliday 1934–35,1968,1971
NY 97 NW* Gunnerton Frost 1971
NY 97 NE* Hallington Burnett and Holliday 1932–34,1971–73
NY 98 SW* Ridsdale Frost 1972–73
NY 98 SE* Great Bavington Burnett and Holliday 1932–33,1972–73
NY 98 NW East Woodburn Frost 1973
NY 98 NE Raechester Burnett and Holliday 1933, 1973

Memoir

Geology of the country around Bellingham. Memoir for 1:50 000 geological sheet 13 by D.V. Frost and D.W. Holliday

Bibliographical reference: Frost, D.V. and Holliday, D.W. 1980. Geology of the country around Bellingham. Mem. Geol. Surv. G.B., Sheet 13, 112 pp.

View searchable copy

View original printed memoir